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Joko Mulyanto

Bagian IKK / IKM

Jurusan Kedokteran FKIK UNSOED
Concept & Scope of Epidemiology
Disease patterns
Number and rates
Person, Place and Time variable.
Distribution of determinants
Health-related states or events
Specified population
Application to control the health problem
Distribution: frequency and pattern of
health events (diseases).
Determinants: causes and factor influence
the occurrence of health events.
Health related events: not only disease,
behaviors related to health.
Specified population : focus on population
exposed to the source of disease.
Descriptive epidemiology
Concern with characteristics and
distribution of health related events.
Answering the question: what, when,
Analytic epidemiology

Search for cause of diseases.

Answering the question: why, how
Disease pattern is the result of descriptive
Descriptive epidemiology concern with the
distribution of disease.
Two main aspects:
- Frequency / number
- Pattern of disease based on person, place and
Occurrence of disease by time, place, and
personal characteristics.
Time characteristic: annual occurrence,
seasonal occurrence, daily / hourly during
Place characteristics: geographic variation,
Personal characteristics: demographic
factors, SES, environmental exposure.
Comparison of disease occurrence
Absolute and relative numbers.
Relative numbers : rate , ratio
Disease occurrence changes over time.
Some changes are regular and can be
Description of these changes is very
important and useful health information.
Graphic presentation is the most common
of time-disease descriptions.
Time : horizontal (x) axis

Disease occurrence : vertical (y) axis

Secular (long-term) trends.
- graphing the case annually
- useful to predict disease incidence in the

- graphing the occurrence of disease by

or month.
- suggest the transmission of disease,
contributing risk factor
Day of week and time of day
- Display disease occurrence by the day of
the week or time of day.
- Analysis of regular events.
Epidemic period

- Epidemic curve
To get information about the geographical
extent of disease occurrence.
Unit of analysis: geographical unit such as

administration unit, rural-urban.

Analyze where the disease start, multiply

and transmit.
Graphical presentation: spot map
Description of disease occurrence based on
personal characteristics.
Demographic: age, sex, marital status,
race / ethnicity.
Behavior /activity: occupation, risky
behavior (smoking, alcohol consumption)
Socioeconomic: education, income status.
The most fundamental and important is age
and sex.
The single most important personal
Almost every disease related to age.
Usually, age categorized into groups with 5-
years interval.
Can be further analyzed with different
groups to get more precise information.
Sex : differences of disease occurrence
between male and female. Caused by
inherent differences between male and
female such as anatomic, hormonal,
susceptibility and physiological response.
Ethnic and racial group: common
characteristic both biologically and socially.
Socioeconomic status: different opportunity
to get exposed by risk factor.