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Annexure I Notes of Lesson

Linear Integrated Circuits

Unit - II
DC Characteristics of Opamp
Evocation
General Objectives
To understand the dc characteristics of operational
amplifier.
Specific Objective
1.List the parameters of dc characteristics. (S,E)
2.Compute the formula for Rcomp resistor to
compensate the bias current. (T,E)
3.Predict a possible solution to compensate input offset
current.(S,T)
DC Characteristics
The non ideal dc characteristics that add error
components to the dc output voltage are,

Input Bias Current


Input Offset Current
Input offset Voltage
Total Output offset Voltage
Thermal drift
Input Bias Current

In an ideal op-amp, we assumed that no current is drawn from


the input terminals.
The base currents entering into the inverting and non-
inverting terminals (IB+ & IB- respectively).
Input bias current IB is the average value of the base currents
entering into terminal of an op-amp

I B I B
IB
2
Input Bias Current
The effect can be compensated with compensation resistor R comp. By
KVL,Vo = V2 V1
By selecting proper value of
Rcomp, V2 can be cancelled with
V1 and the Vo = 0.
The value of Rcomp is derived as,
Input Bias Current

KVL at node a gives


V1 V1 ( R1 R f )
I -
B I 2 I1 V1
Rf R1 R1 R f
Assume I -B I B , we get
( R1 R f ) V1
V1
R1 R f Rcomp
( R1 R f )
Rcomp R1 || R f
R1 R f
Input offset current
The difference between the bias currents at the input terminals
of the op- amp is called as input offset current.

Ios I B I B
The input terminals conduct a small value of dc current to bias
the input transistors.

Since the input transistors cannot be made identical, there


exists a difference in bias currents

Even with bias current compensation, offset current will


produce an output voltage when Vi = 0.
V1 = IB+ Rcomp
I1 = V1/R1
Input offset current
KCL at node a gives,

Rcomp
I 2 ( I I1 ) I ( I
B B B )
R1
Again, Vo I 2 R f V1 I 2 R f I B Rcomp
Rcomp
I I

B

B
R f I B Rcomp
R1

Hence, Vo R f I B I B R f I os

So even with bias current compensation and with


feedback resistor of 1M, a BJT op-amp has an output
offset voltage
Vo = 1M X 200nA
Input offset current
T-feed back network is a good solution
Provides a feedback
signal as if the network
were a single feedback
resistor
By T to conversion,

Rt2 2 Rt Rs
Rf ,
Rs
to design a T network, first pick
Rf Rt2
R t , Then calculate Rs
2 R f 2 Rt
Input offset voltage
A small voltage applied to the input terminals to make
the output voltage as zero when the two input terminals
are grounded is called input offset voltage, Vos
Input offset voltage
Let us determine the Vos on the output of inverting and
non-inverting amplifier. If Vi = 0 (Fig (b) and (c)) become
the same as in figure (d).
V2 at the ve input terminal is given by,
R1
V2 Vo ,
R R
1 f
R1 R f Rf
Vo V2 1 V2
R1 R1
sin ce, Vios Vi V2 andVi 0
Rf
Vios V2 , Vo 1 Vios
R1
Total Output Offset Voltage
The maximum offset voltage at the output of an inverting
and non-inverting amplifier without any compensation
technique used is given by
Rf
VoT 1 Vios R f I B
R1

With Rcomp in the circuit, total output offset voltage will


be given by
Rf
VoT 1 Vios R f I os
R1
THERMAL DRIFT

Bias current, offset current and offset voltage change


with temperature.
A circuit carefully nulled at 25oc may not remain so when
the temperature rises to 35oc.
This is called drift.
Offset current drift is expressed in nA/C.
Offset voltage drift is expressed in mV/C.
Indicates the change in offset for each degree celsius
change in temperature

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Specific Objective
4.Name some of the applications of opamp. (S,E)
Applications
Audio and radio communication
Medical Electronics
Instrumentation control
Voltage comparator
Filter
Waveform generator
MIND MAP
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Stimulating Questions
Does opamp respond equally well to both ac and dc
input voltages?
Name the type of feedback used if an external
component is connected between output and inverting
input.