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Safety Engineering

Safety engineering is an engineering

discipline which assures that engineered
systems provide acceptable levels of safety. It
is strongly related to systems engineering,
industrial engineering and the subset system
safety engineering. Safety engineering
assures that a life-critical system behaves as
needed, even when components fail.
The primary goal of safety engineering is to
manage risk, eliminating or reducing it to
acceptable levels.
Risk is the combination of the probability of a
failure event, and the severity resulting from
the failure.
Job Hazard Analysis
Discuss the sub elements of worksite hazard
Identify typical hazards in the workplace
Review various techniques that can be used
to identify hazards in the workplace
Plan for Worksite Analysis
Comprehensive Facility
Change Analysis
Routine Job Hazard
Analysis (JHA)
Periodic and Daily
Job Safety Analysis Worksheet Date:

Title of Job/Operation: Exotic Plant Removal Log Number:

Employee Name and Job Title: Analyst and Date:

Division/Bureau/Section: Approved By and Date:
Recreation and Parks J.E. Smyth 2/17/06
Personal Protective Equipment Required or Recommended: Hat, gloves, sunscreen
Sequence of Basic Job Steps Potential Accidents or Hazards* Recommended Safe Job Procedures

Getting ready, driving to the site training equipment, road conditions, traffic Driving conditions, driver training, wear
accidents seatbelts, check tires for proper inflation,
drive with headlights on, be aware of the
surroundings, use cell phone/radio, carry
fire extinguisher and jumper cables

Unloading Strain Use proper lifting techniques and obtain

Slip/trip/fall assistance of coworker
At site: knowing plant Insect, animals, plants First aid kit/training
location (asses site Proper PPE
conditions and walk area) Plant contact with skin Know signs of heat stress and have fluids
available. Take frequent breaks. Use
Environmental exposure sunscreen and wear long sleeve shorts
and pants. Seek cover in inclement
weather conditions. I.D. escape route

Record data Environmental Exposure

Bag Plant Repetitive motion Frequent breaks
Exposure to elements-Insect bites, snakes PPE and be alert

Load trucks Large heavy bags Use wheelbarrow and proper lifting
Return/Unload trucks Lifting, slipping on bed on truck Proper PPE and lifting techniques

Struck By (SB) Caught On (CO) Fall To Below (FB)

Struck Against (SA) Caught In (CI) Overexertion
Contacted By (CB) Caught Between (CBT) Exposure (E)
Contact With (CW) Fall - Same Level (FS)
Job Hazard Analysis
A job hazard analysis is a technique that focuses on
job tasks as a way to identify hazards before they
It focuses on the relationship between the worker, the
task, the tools, and the work environment.
After uncontrolled hazards are identified, take action
to eliminate them or reduce risk.
Job Hazard Analysis
Performing a job hazard analysis is one of the
best methods to develop safe work
procedures for the equipment that is
The JHA can also be used to train employees
in the hazards associated with task and what
control measures should be practiced.
JHA Team
A Job Hazard Analysis requires the
cooperation of all parties involved that
Safety Professional
Engineers-Technical Advisor
Supervisors-Frontline Personnel responsible
for making change
Employee-Person most familiar with job
Prioritization of JHA
Jobs with the highest Jobs complex enough to
injury and illness rates have written instructions
Jobs that have the Jobs that are new to you
potential to cause
Jobs that significantly had
serious injury
changes in process
Jobs in which one
technology or procedures
simple human error
could cause injury
Steps for JHA
Involve Employees List, rank, and set
Review accident history priorities for hazardous
Conduct preliminary job jobs
review Outline the steps or
Involvement of Employees
They have a unique understanding of
the job, and this knowledge is
invaluable for finding hazards.
Involving employees will help minimize
oversights, ensure a quality analysis.
Get workers to buy in to the solutions
because they will share ownership
Outline the Steps
Watch the employee perform the job and list each
step as the worker takes it.
Be sure to record enough information to describe
each job action without getting overly detailed.
Avoid making the breakdown of steps so detailed
that it becomes unnecessarily long or so broad that it
does not include basic steps.
Outline the Steps
Review the job steps with the employee to
make sure you have not omitted something.
Include the employee in all phases of the
analysisfrom reviewing the job steps and
procedures to discussing uncontrolled
hazards and recommended solutions.
Identifying the Hazards
A job hazard analysis is an exercise in
detective work. Your goal is to discover the
What can go wrong?
What are the consequences?
How could it arise?
What are other contributing factors?
How likely is it that the hazard will occur?
Common Hazards in the
Stressor Hazard Type Hazard Type Hazard Type

Chemical Corrosive Fire Toxic

Electrical Shock Short Circuit Fire-Static

Mechanical Moving Failure Noise

Parts Pressure
Ergonomic Strain Human Error Fatigue
Common Hazards in the
Stressor Hazard Hazard Type Hazard
Type Type
Radiation Ionizing Non
Contact Struck By Struck Caught In
Environment Temp. Visibility Weather

Misc. Slips Trips Falls

Controlling the Hazards
The order of precedence and effectiveness of
hazard control is the following:
1. Engineering controls.
2. Administrative controls.
3. Personal protective equipment.
Controlling the Hazards
The most effective controls are engineering controls
that physically change a machine or work
environment to prevent employee exposure to the
The more reliable or less likely a hazard control can
be circumvented, the better.
If this is not feasible, administrative controls may be
This may involve changing how employees do their
Engineering Controls
Engineering controls include the following:
Elimination/minimization of the hazard
Substitution of equipment or process to decrease
Isolation of the hazard with interlocks, machine guards,
blast shields, or other means; and
Removal or redirection of the hazard such as with local
and exhaust ventilation.
Administrative Controls
Administrative controls include the following:
Written operating procedures, work permits, and safe
work practices;
Exposure time limitations (used most commonly to
control heat stress and ergonomic hazards);
Monitoring the use of highly hazardous materials;
Alarms, signs, and warnings;
Buddy system; and training
Personal Protective Equipment is acceptable as a
control method in the following circumstances:
When engineering controls are not feasible or do not
totally eliminate the hazard;
While engineering controls are being developed;
When safe work practices do not provide sufficient
additional protection; and
During emergencies when engineering controls may
not be feasible.
JHA Exercise
We are going to perform
an exercise on grinding
metal casting.
Based on the steps,
please identify the
hazards and controls.
Worksite hazard analysis consists of:
Change analysis
Workplace inspections
Hazard Reporting
Trend Analysis
Effective programs will result in the identification of
potential and existing hazards.