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Some A Variety of Some other

Basic issues Situations Voices
Birth of language
How language planning
is defined
Some examples
The reasons for
language planning
Language planning is
carried out by whom
Introduction 1
Birth of Language Planning
Language planning was first put
forward by Uriel Weinrich, in 1957,
at a seminar held in Columbia
University, the U.S.
In the literature concerned with
"language planning", the American-
Norwegian sociolinguist Einar
Haugen is often mentioned as the
person who gave birth to the
concept. In the article "Language
Planning in Modern Norway(1959),
which was widely acknowledged
after its second edition in 1968,
Haugen introduced and attempted
to define the concept. Bente
Introduction 2
How language planning is defined 1
1. the development of policies or programs designed to
direct or change language use, as through the
establishment of an official language, the
standardization or modernization of a language, or
the development or alteration of a writing system.
2. The numerous attempts that have been made to
change a particular variety of a language, or a
particular language, or some aspect of how either of
these functions in society. Such changes are usually
described as instances of language planning. Ronald
(1998, p. 347)
3. Language planning is a government authorized,
longterm, sustained, and conscious effort to alter a
languages function in a society for the purpose of
solving communication problems Weinstein(1980,
p. 56)
Introduction 2
How language planning is
defined 2
4. Language planning involves the
creation and implementation of an
official policy about how the
languages and linguistic varieties of a
country are to be used. David Crystal
(1996, p. 366)
Introduction 2
Two examples
1. The founding of the Acadamie
Francaise in 1634.
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1. The Ethiopian literacy campaign
around 1974
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Introduction 3
The reasons for language planning
Different social groups wish to maintain their
linguistic identities and interests, and may
actively and often violently campaign for
Changes increasing, countries becoming aware,
it is not possible to rely on the slow course of
natural liguistic evolution to resolve the
pressures and conflicts that arise.
Therefore, many governments try to solve their
problems by engaging in conscious, principled
language planning, or linguistic engineering
Introduction 4
Language planning is carried out by:
government departments and agencies
popular societies
Historical, political, economic, religious,
educational, judicial, and social factors
all have to be disentangled
(David Crystal, 1997, p. 367)
Some Basic Issues 1
Language planning is an attempt to
interfere deliberately with a
language or one of its varieties
which may focus on either its status
with regard to some other language
or variety or its internal condition
with a view to changing that
condition, or on both of these since
they are not mutually exclusive.
The first focus results in status
planning ( ), the second
corpus planning ( )
Some Basic Issues 2
status planning; corpus planning
Status planning changes the function of a
language or a variety of a language and the
rights of those who use it. Ronald
Wardhaugh(1998, p. 347)
According to David Crystal (1997, p. 366),
changes, in status planning, are proposed in the
way a language/variety is to be used in society
permitted for the first time in law courts or in
official publications.
Some Basic Issues 3
status planning; corpus planning
Corpus planning seeks to develop a variety of a
language or a language, usually to standardize it,
that is, to provide it with the means for serving
every possible language function in society.
According to David Crystal (1997, p. 366),
changes, in corpus planning, are introduced into
the stucture of a language/variety spelling,
pronunciation, grammar, or vocabulary.
Some Basic Issues 3
status planning; corpus planning
The corpus/status dichotomy emphasizes the dual nature of
language planning, that is, its concern with both the
linguistic and social aspects of language.
Corpus planning refers to all actions aiming at modifying
the nature of the language itself,
Status planning is concerned with whether the social status
of language should be lowered or raised.
However, the two cannot be separated from each other. And
language planning can never be corpus-oriented or status-
oriented exclusively.
Florian Coulmas(1998, P. 448)
Some Basic Issues 3
According to Kenneth Ives, there is a
third kind acquisition planning.
Refers to organized efforts to promote
the learning of a language. (
Kenneth Ives, a retired sociologist
and social worker. He is author of
Written Dialects N Spelling Reforms:
History N Alternatives (1979) and of
two articles on studies of acceptability
of spelling reforms
Some Basic Issues 4
Cobarrubias(1983)has described four
typical ideologies that may motivate actual
decision-making in language planning in a
particular society:

1. linguistic assimilation,
2. linguistic pluralism,
3. vernacularizaiton,
4. internationalism
Some Basic Issues 5
linguistic assimilation
the belief that everyone, regardless
of origin,should learn the dominant
language of the society.
France applied this policy to
various peoples within its borders.
Russification in the former Soviet
Some Basic Issues 6

linguistic pluralism
the recognition of more than one language, also
takes a variety of forms. It can be territorially or
individually based or there may be some
combination of the two. It can be complete or
partial, so that all or only some aspects of life can
be conducted in more than one language in
examples are countries like Belgium, Canada,
Some Basic Issues 7
the restoration or elaboration of
an indigenous language and its
adoption as an official language.
Hebrew in Israel;
Tagalog(or Pilipino) in the
Some Basic Issues 8
the adoption of a non-indigenous language
of wider communication either as an official
language or for such purposes, as
education or trade.
English in Singapore,
India, the Pilippines
Some Basic Issues 9
As a result of planning decisions,
1. A language can achieve one of a variety of
statuses. A language may be recognized as the
sole official anguage, as French is in France.
Two or more languages may share official status
in some countries, e.g., English and French in
Canada and Cameroon.
2. A language may also
have official status but only
on a regional basis, e.g.,
German in Belgium
Some Basic Issues 10
Planning decisions will obviously
play a very large role in
determining what happens to any
minority language or languages
in a country. They can result in
deliberate attempts to eradicate
such a language, as with
Francos attempt to eliminate
Basque from Spain by banning it
from public life.
A variety of Situations
we will look at a variety of linguistic
situations in the world to see some
instances of planning.
1. France serves as a good example of a
country which has a single national
language and does little or nothing for
any other language.
2. The bilingualism of Belgium. Today,
French and Flemis(Dutch) co-exist in a
somewhat uneasy truce in Belgium.
The struggle between the French and
the Flemish has a long history.
3. For more examples, see P 353-358
A variety of Situations 2
some further examples
1. Papua New Guinea, a nation of 700 or more
indigenous languages some, possibly more than
a third, with fewer than 500 speakers,and this in
a total population of approximately 4 million.
2. Singapore, an independent republic of nearly 3
million people.
3. Modern Norway, 4 million people.
4. Canada, 30 million people.
5. China
See P 360-365
Some others
Planning in Practice 1
(David Crystal, 1997, p. 366)
Selecting the norm( )
choose a single language as a norm for
official, educational, and other purposes.
choose a particular variety of a language or
to construct a new variety, considering such
factors as formality, social class, regional
dialect, and previous literary use.
Planning in Practice 2
Codification( )
The chosen language needs to be developed to
meet the demands placed upon it as a medium
of national or international communication.
If the language has previously existed only in
spoken form, or in an unusual writing system, an
alphabet will have to be devised, along with rules
of spelling and punctuation.
An early aim will be the codification of the
pronunciation, grammar, and vocab to provide a
set of norms for standard use, especially
if there is a great deal of local variation.
Planning in Practice 3
Modernization( )
The vocab will need to be modernized to enable foreign
material to be translated consistently.
Principles will have to be agreed for the introduction of new
terms; for example, should they be loan words or coinages
based on native roots?
New styles of discourse may need to be developed, for use
on radio or in the press. Decisions will need to be made
about new or uncertain usages, especially in technical
Planning in Practice 4
Implementation ( )
The chosen standard will need to be officially
implemented by using it for government publications,
in the media, and in schools.
It will be viewed as the best form of language in the
speech community, because it will be associated with
educational progress and social status.
It will also provide the norm for literary style, and may
be associated with factors of a nationalistic, cultural,
or religious kind.
In due course, it is likely to be promulgated as a norm
through an official body, such as an academy, or
through prescriptive grammars, dictionaries, and
manuals of usage.
Chinese language planning
(David Crystal, 1997, p. 367)
Some of the most ambitious programmes of
language planning ever conceived have taken place
in China since the 1950s, with hundreds of millions
of people affected.
Two main developments
1. The provision of a romanized alphabet(pin-yin)
2. The promotion of a common spoken language,
putonghua to provide a means of communication
between the various regional languages.
An example, Datian county in Fujian province
A pin-yin class picture
A pin-yin class in
Ningwu County,
(David Crystal, 1997, p. 367)
1. David Crystal. (1997). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of
Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2. Florian Coulmas. (1998). The Handbook of
Sociolinguistics. Hoboken: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.
3. Ronald Wardhrugh. (1998). An Introduction to
Sociolinguistics. Hoboken: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.
an adoption of the Russian language or some
other Russian attributes (whether voluntarily or
not) by non-Russian communities. In a narrow
sense, Russification is used to indicate the
influence of the Russian language on Slavic, Baltic
and other languages, spoken in areas currently or
formerly controlled by Russia, which led to the
emerging of russianisms, trasianka and surzhyk.
In a historical sense, the term refers to both official
and unofficial policies of Imperial Russia and the
Soviet Union with respect to their national
constituents and to national minorities in Russia,
aimed at Russian domination.The major areas of
Russification are politics and culture
Belgiums linguistic pluralism
Official languages:Dutch, French, and German
A number of non-official, minority languages and
Flemish, Walloon, Picard, Champenois, Lorrain,
Low Dietsch, Luxembourgish, Yiddish
Other minority and foreign languages:
Languages spoken by immigrants from recent
decades and their descendants include Arabic
(Maghrebi Arabic), Spanish, Turkish, Portuguese,
Italian and Polish
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Francos attempt to eliminate Basque
Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Tedulo Franco y
Bahamonde (4 December 1892 20 November 1975),
known simply as Francisco Franco, a Spanish dictator,
military general and head of state of Spain from October
1936 (as a unified nation from 1939 onwards),
Euzkadi was the autonomous Basque region straddling
northern Spain and southern France. This autonomous
Basque republic had been granted wartime self-rule by the
Spanish Republic in 1936, when the Republic was fighting
against Francos fascist forces in the Spanish Civil War.
Euzkadi, which had its own language and customs, held
out for nine months before Bilbao in the region fell to
Franco in June of 1937, and the Basque army surrendered
in August of 1937. About 7,000 Basques had been killed in
the fighting, 6,000 were later executed by Franco, and
45,000 were imprisoned. Approximately 150,000 went into
exile for decades. Franco subsequently tried to eliminate
the Basque language (known as Euskera) and customs.