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ELECTRIC VEHICLE

PATRICK COLLINS
&
JARRED LORUSSO

August 28, 2009- January 22, 2010


Electric Vehicle Mission Statement:

In an effort to save the environment and reduce our


dependence on foreign oil, we wanted to convert a gasoline
powered car into an electric vehicle.

With the support of Mr. Mongillio, the Macari fund and Jim
Lynch (mechanic for Lorusso Construction) as well as Bob
and Bryan from Electric Vehicle of America (EVA), we
converted a 1998 Saturn gas powered vehicle into an
electric vehicle.
Overview On The Importance of Electric
Vehicles:
The Importance of Electric Vehicles:

Gas is a scarce, natural resource.

Electricity is cheaper than gas. Electricity can come from


renewable resources such as solar and wind power.

Electric cars pollute less than gas-powered cars.

Electric cars are much more reliable and require less


maintenance than gas-powered cars. You don't even need
to get your oil changed every 3,000 miles!

By using domestically-generated electricity rather than


relying on foreign oil, the USA can become more
independent.
US Gasoline Consumption & Reliance On
Imports Has Dramatically Increased:

US consumption
Increasing Reliance
on imports
dramatically
Increasing.

US productio
dramatically
Decreasing
The Problems With Gasoline Powered
Vehicles:

1. Gasoline Is A Scarce 2. Heavy Reliance On Imports:


Resource: US only manufactures 34% of
gasoline needed in US.
Production Shortages
Heavy reliance on foreign countries.
Alaskan oil has reduced.
US Coastal oil impacted Pricing is uncontrollable
by hurricanes. Future availability may be limited
Oil Spills can occur especially with 3rd world country
Gasoline Is Expensive expansion.

3. Creates Smog & Ozone in Big 4. Creates Greenhouse Gases:


Cities: - Carbon monoxide, a poisonous gas is
one of the major Greenhouse
Nitrogen oxides, the main source of urban Gases.
smog - Greenhouse effects the planet, rising sea
levels, flooding, etc.
Unburned hydrocarbons, the main source of
The main source (95%) of carbon
urban ozone monoxide in our air is from vehicle
emissions. (Per EPA studies)
Accidents Happen: Oil Spills:
Port Arthur Oil Spill- 01/23/10
On January 23, 2010, an oil-spill
occurred in Texas impacting wildlife areas.

The U.S. Coast Guard said about 462,000 gallons -


or 11,000 barrels - of oil spilled into the water
Saturday when an 800-foot tanker collided with a
towing vessel pushing two barges near Port Arthur,
about 90 miles east of Houston.

It was the largest oil spill in Texas since 1994, when


4.3 million gallons of crude oil spilled about 60
miles off Galveston .

Exxon Valdez 1989 Accident


One of the largest oil spills happened in Alaska in resulted in oil pooling at shor
1989 when the Exxon Valdez ship spilled 10.8
million gallons of crude oil. It is considered one of
the most devastating human-caused environmental
disasters ever to occur at sea
Electric Vehicles Save Gas & Money;
-Over $18,000 potential savings:
Electric Vehicles Have A Few Downsides:

Batteries need to be charged.

Car can not be used when batteries are being charged.

Car can only go 40 Miles between charges.

Battery disposal needs to be carefully managed.


Our Project :
The objective of our project is to convert a gas-powered
vehicle into an electric vehicle.
Our Project: The Electric Vehicle Process:

Research internet for electric vehicle information. March- June 2009- 3 hours

Contacted [EVA] to discuss parameters of project and cost estimate. July


2009 1 hour

Proposed project to [Mr. Mongillo] Got approval from Macari fund. August
2009- 2 hours

Researched automobiles which fit [EVA] specifications. August 2009- 2


hours

Put in offer for 1995 Ford Escort, We were out bid. August 25, 2009

Purchased 1998 Saturn from Ebelings Auto. August 28, 2009 for $1,750.00-
2 hours
Electric Vehicle-Decision Making:

The car ran great!

The body of the car was in


good condition.

It was under 3,000 lbs gross


body weight.

It had a standard
transmission.

It fit the criteria for an eligible


car to convert to an Electric
Vehicle.
Electric Vehicle Conversion Budget:

Cost of Car- $1,750


Cost of Electric Motor- $1,550
Cost of Controller- $1,495
Clutch less Transmission- $725
Clutch plates and all brackets $400
10 Batteries $2,250
Battery Charger $1,030
Battery Cables, Terminals, Heat Shrink $400
Inside Instruments $225
Fuse Systems- $225
Total Cost of Parts- $10,050

Mr. Lorusso donated his garage & time of mechanics PRICELESS-


Thank You!!
Electric Vehicle Conversion: Company Used

ELECTRIC VEHICLE OF AMERICA is a company in NH which


has helped people convert over 1,000 gas-powered vehicles
to electric vehicles . We called them many times for help.

Worked with Bob & Bryan (EVA) sending specifications of


the automobile to determine total budget for the project- 2
hours

Some of the cars converted can be seen on the following


pages.
Electric Vehicle Conversion:

Electric Car(s) Converted by EVA


Electric Vehicle Conversion:

Other Electric Vehicle(s) Converted by EVA


Electric Vehicle Motor Removal:

This is the look of the


engine before we removed
it.

We had to remove the


muffler, radiator,
alternator, air conditioner.
About 3 hours
Electric Vehicle: Engine Removal

Jarred, Patrick & Jim removed


engine from car- November
14th-
5 hours

What made removing the


engine much easier was a car
lift. We were able to loosen
bolts from underneath the car
instead of laying on our backs.
Electric Vehicle: Engine Removal

In order to remove the


engine the front wheels
and the transmission had
to be removed first to
allow us to get at the
motor mounts.
Electric Vehicle: Engine Removal

We used an engine hoist to


pull the engine out of the
car.

The total process of Jarred,


Pat, Jim, Matt & Gerry took
5 hours.
Electric Vehicle-Next Steps

The motor is out of the car.

The wheels and


transmission are on the
ground.

NOW WHAT???

We need help from EVA-


Electric Vehicle Conversion:

We had to take the motor


and transmission
measurements and send
them to EVA.

EVA fabricated a clutch


plate for us. Mr. Collins
drove to NH to pick up all
of the parts. 4 Hours
Electric Vehicle Conversion:

Once the engine and


transmission were out, we
had to install the clutch
plate which got connected
to the new engine.

The clutch plate works with


the transmission to shift
the gears.
Electric Vehicle Conversion:

We needed to use a drill


press to make very precise
holes where the clutch
plate connected to the
motor.
Electric Vehicle: Engine Removal:

Our car has a clutchless


transmission.

This means that instead of


using a clutch to switch the
gears you wait for a certain
speed to switch gears.
Electric Vehicle Conversion:

The clutch plate was a 12 x


12 x 1 piece of metal.

It needed to be cut with a


laser saw.

The laser saw cut metal with


a 1200 degree laser. The
laser was very precise.

Then we used a ban saw to


smooth out the rough edges.
Electric Vehicle- Next Steps??

The steps to measure the


clutch plate drill the holes
and get the motor installed
was done over 3 Saturdays
in November and
December- Approximately
15 hours.

Jarred & Pat are pondering


the next steps.
Electric Vehicle: Engine Conversion

The motor then gets


installed and the wheels
and transmission get
reinstalled.

The clutch plate which we


cut is the big piece of
metal on the right side of
the motor.

The clutch plate and motor


mounts hold the motor
straight. 5 hours
Electric Vehicle: Battery Conversion

The car is powered by 10


batteries.

There will be 6 batteries in


the trunk, and 4 in the
front of the car for proper
weight distribution.
Electric Vehicle Conversion:

Creative battery holders


were made. This one is in a
wheel well and on a hinge.
3 hours
Electric Vehicle Conversion:

This is where the radiator


was removed.

A metal table was made to


hold 2 batteries in the front
of the car. 4 hours to
fabricate
Electric Vehicle Conversion:

The trunk was measured


and a metal reinforced
plate was created to hold 6
batteries.

Each battery weighs 70 lbs.


or 420 lbs in the trunk and
280 lbs in the front of the
car plus the weight of the
motor, transmission and
front end of the car.

3 hours to fabricate.
Electric Vehicle Conversion:

This is Curtis who did the


fabricating.

Patrick & Jarred helped


measure and cut the metal
pieces.

Curtis welded the pieces


together.

The total fabrication


process took 10 hours.
Electric Vehicle Conversion:

It is critical to get two


coats of paint on all of the
welded metal to avoid
rusting.

Jarred painted the two


wheel wells.
Electric Vehicle Conversion:

Patrick painted the battery


holder for the trunk. This
was done to protect from
corrosion-not weather.

Patrick painted the holder


under the hood as well.

All painting- 2 hours


Electric Vehicle Conversion:

Once the paint dried, the


fabricated metal had to be
secured into the trunk with
lag bolts to hold the tray in
place.

This process took 1 hour.


Electric Vehicle Conversion:

We had to make cables to


run from battery to battery.

We needed to crimp the


battery terminal onto the
wire.

24 wires 2 terminals for


each wire. 1 hour
Electric Vehicle Conversion:

We had to use small


crimpers to crimp the small
battery terminals and large
crimpers to crimp the large
terminals.

10 batteries-2 terminals
each battery; 2 ends to
each cable 40 terminals.

Took about 2 hours to


make.
Electric Vehicle Conversion:

Mr. Lorusso is teaching Pat


& Jarred how to shrink
rubber around the battery
terminals.
Electric Vehicle Conversion:

Once we crimped the


battery terminal, we had to
shrink rubber around each
terminal to protect it from
moisture getting into the
battery terminal.

Took about 1 hour to shrink


all cables.
Electric Vehicle Conversion:

Mr. Lorusso, Jimmy and Mr.


Stewart from the battery
company use a volt meter
to connect the batteries
together to get maximum
power.

Took about 1 hour.


Electric Vehicle Conversion:

Once the tray was in place,


the batteries were installed
with foam insulation to
protect the batteries in the
event of an accident.

Mr. Lorusso is measuring


for stabilizer bars.

This took 2 hours


Electric Vehicle Conversion:

These are the two batteries


which are in the front of the
vehicle.

There are two batteries which


are also on each wheel well.

Each battery is connected by


the cables and terminals which
we made. One cable goes from
the positive terminal to the
negative terminal.

Then the next cable takes the


power to the next battery.
Electric Vehicle Conversion:

This is the battery tray with all


of the cables connected and
the vertical stabilizer bars in
place.

The red cable on the side


connects the batteries from the
back of the car to the front.

It connects under the car using


a plastic sleeve.

Running and connecting cables


took 4 hours.
Electric Vehicle Conversion:

This is the side view of the


car with the two front
batteries connected.

The heavy cable is the


front to back cable
connecting the batteries
from the trunk to the hood.
Electric Vehicle Conversion:

There is a fire proof board


which is on a hinge. These
are all of the components
which run the car.

The large black box is the


controller which talks to
the batteries and the
motor.

Fabricating board and


installing components 4
hours.
Electric Vehicle Conversion:

The throttle is on the left


side. This controls the
speed of the car.

The battery on the right


side of the car. This is the
regular car battery which
controls the horn, radio
and wipers.
Electric Vehicle Conversion:

The alternator of the car


was removed with the
motor. There is a DC-DC
converter which runs off of
the other batteries which
charges the car battery.
Electric Car Conversion:

This is the board with the


hinge up.

The red cables connect the


controller to the motor.
Electric Vehicle Conversion-Whats Next??

The battery charger needs


to be connected.

We are going to install it by


the gas tank. You will have
to open the gas tank to
plug in the batteries. 2
hours
Electric Vehicle Conversion-Whats Next??

To register the car, there


needs to be a stencil that
shows this is an electric
vehicle- 290 Auto Body to
complete along with fixing
the scratch on drivers door-
6 hours

We are going to replace the


drivers seat because there is
a rip in it- 2 hours

We need to install the


gauges to show the power in
the batteries 4 hours
Electric Vehicle Conversion-Whats Next??

Wash & polish the car


inside and out- 3 hours.

Charge the batteries for 8


hours- Drive Car for 10
miles and recharge
batteries 3 times.

Bring Car to Auction!


Electric Vehicle-TIME LINE RECAP:

Decision Preparation- 3 hours


Project Proposal- 3 hours
Research/buy car 4 hours
Budget proposal 2 hours
Pre Engine Removal 3 hours
Engine Removal 5 hours
Pick up Parts/clutch plate 4 hours
Clutch Plate Preparation/install 15 hours
Stabilize Motor 5 hours
Battery holder fabrication/welding 10 hours
Painting & Installing Battery holders 3 hours
Electric Vehicle-TIME LINE RECAP:

Cutting & Crimping Cables 4 hours


Battery Installation 3 hours
Cable Connection (All) 4 hours
Board Fabrication 2 hours
Assemble Components on board 2 hours
Install Battery Charger 2 hours
Stencil & Body Work 6 hours
Replace Drivers Seat 2 hours
Install gauges 4 hours
Clean & Polish car 3 hours

TOTAL TIME ALLOCATED TO CONVERSION 86 HOURS


Electric Vehicle- What Did We Learn?

We learned to use a step by step process.

We learned how to use ratchets, lifts, engine hoists, blow torches, laser
saws, band saws, and all other types of cool tools.

We learned that no mechanical project is too big as long as you have


great mechanics.

Electric Vehicles will really help save our environment.

Electric Vehicles can save thousands of dollars in fuel costs.

The United States should continue to invest in alternative fuel sources.

Small environment changes will make a difference. We can make a


difference! We did make a difference.
Electric Vehicle- Thank You

To Mr. Mongillo for inspiring us with the idea.

The Macari Fund & Sister Martha for helping us out financially
(Our parents too for making up the difference with money and
time.)

EVA for providing us technical support.

Lorusso Corporation for providing us garage space and great


mechanics like Jimmy & Curtis.

290 Auto Body for stenciling and repairing the door and
searching salvage yards for the drivers door.
Electric Vehicle Conversion

THANK YOU

The future really is in our hands!