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TRANSMISSION

MEDIA
ECEN 3214: Transmission Media
and Antenna System
TRANSMISSION MEDIUM
AND PHYSICAL LAYER
CLASSES OF
TRANSMISSION MEDIUM
COPPER PROPERTIES
Copper has several important properties
which make it well suited for electronic
cabling:

Conductivity Copper is an excellent


conductor of electric current and heat.
Corrosion Resistance Copper will not
rust and is fairly resistant to corrosion.
Ductility Copper possesses the ability
to be drawn into thin wires without
breaking.
Malleability Pure copper is easy to
shape.
Strength Copper keeps its strength
and toughness up to about 400 F.
TWISTED
PAIR
ECEN 3214: Transmission Media
and Antenna System
TWISTED PAIR
WHAT IS TWISTED PAIR?

Type of cabling that is used for


telephone communications and most
modern Ethernet networks.
A pair of wires forms a circuit that can
transmit data.
WHY TWISTED PAIR IS
TWISTED?
The pairs are twisted to provide
protection against crosstalk, the noise
generated by adjacent pairs.
Twisting the wires can enhance this
cancellation effect.
Using cancellation together with twisting
the wires, cable designers can
effectively provide self-shielding for
wire pairs within the network media.
TYPES OF TWISTED PAIR

F/UTP (FTP)
An overall foil shield (F) with
unscreened twisted pairs (UTP). This
cable is very much like common UTP
cables, with the addition of foil
underneath the main cable jacket.
Another common name for this cable
is FTP. F/UTP cables are common in
10GBaseT applications.
TYPES OF TWISTED PAIR
S/UTP
An overall braid screen (S) with
unscreened twisted pairs (UTP). This
is occasionally referred to as an STP
cable, but beware: There are other
shielded cables among this list that
may also claim this term. To be sure,
always check to see whether your
cable will have any kind of overall
barrier, and whether the individual
pairs have their own shield.
TYPES OF TWISTED PAIR

SF/UTP
Both an overall braid screen (S) and
foil shield (F) with unscreened
twisted pairs (UTP). This cable is
also occasionally referred to as an
STP cable. Cables with an overall
braided screen are very effective at
protecting EMI from entering or
exiting the cable.
TYPES OF TWISTED PAIR
S/FTP
An overall braid screen (S) with foil
screened twisted pairs (FTP). The
shield underneath the jacket is a
braid, and each individual pair is
surrounded by its own foil barrier.
The purpose of the additional foil on
individual pairs is to limit the amount
of crosstalk between them.
TYPES OF TWISTED PAIR
F/FTP
An overall foil shield (F) with foil
screened twisted pairs (FTP). Similar to
F/UTP cables, these shielded cables are
commonly used in 10GBaseT
applications.
U/FTP
No overall shielding or braid (U) with foil
screened twisted pairs (FTP). This type
of shielded cable is commonly used in
10GBaseT applications as well.
TYPES OF TWISTED PAIR
U/UTP
This cable is not shielded at all, and is
the common unshielded cable most often
referred to as UTP cable.

TWO BASIC TYPES OF TWISTED


PAIR
UTP
STP
BASIC TYPES
OF TWISTED PAIR
TRANSMISSION
CHARACTERISTICS

Shielding and twisting reduce interference.


May be used for analog and digital
transmission.
Analog: amplifiers every 5km to 6km
TRANSMISSION
CHARACTERISTICS
Digital:
Use either analog or digital signals
Repeater every 2km or 3km
Twisted pair is limited in distance,
bandwidth (1MHz) and data rate
(100Mbps).
Susceptible to interference and noise:
Easy coupling with electromagnetic fields.
Impulse noise also intrudes into twisted pair.
TRANSMISSION
CHARACTERISTICS
Near End Crosstalk
Coupling of signal from one pair to
another
Coupling takes place when transmit
signal entering the link couples back
to receiving pair
i.e. near transmitted signal is picked
up by near receiving pair
EFFECT OF NOISE ON
PARALLEL LINES
NOISE ON
TWISTED PAIR
APPLICATIONS
TWISTED PAIR
APPLICATIONS
The most common medium for
analog and digital signals is twisted pair.
In the local loop.
In telephone lines to carry voice and
data channels.
In the DSL line (ADSL)
In Local area networks.
In the ISDN (Integrated Services
Digital Network ).
APPLICATIONS

For connections to a digital data


switch or digital private branch
exchange within a building.
A data rate of 64 kbps is common.
For local area networks (LAN)
10Mbps or 100Mbps; now support up
to 1 Gbps.
ADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGES
(TWISTED PAIR)
ADVANTAGES

Maintenance is highly available.


These media can be used for both
analog and digital data
transmission.
It is the cheapest media for short
distances.
ADVANTAGES

If a portion of a twisted-pair cable is


damaged, the entire network is not
shut down as it may be the case with
coaxial cable.
Easy to work with (install and debug).
DISADVANTAGES
Low data rate; comparing with other
guided transmission medium.
Short range
Easily pick up noise signals which
results in higher error rates when the
line length exceeds 100 meters.
Being thin in size, it is likely to break
easily.
It offers very poor security and is
relatively easy to tap.
COMMON INDUSTRY ABBREVIATIONS FOR CABLE CONSTRUCTION
INDUSTRY ISO/IEC 11801 CABLE PAIR
ACRONYMS NAME SHIELDING SHIELDING
UTP U/UTP none none
STP, ScTP,
U/FTP none foil
PiMF
FTP, STP, ScTP F/UTP foil none
STP, ScTP S/UTP braiding none
SFTP, S-FTP,
SF/UTP braiding, foil none
STP
FFTP F/FTP foil foil
SSTP, SFTP,
S/FTP braiding foil
STP PiMF
SSTP, SFTP SF/FTP braiding, foil foil
BENEFITS OF
TWISTED PAIR CABLES
The twisting of each pair of wires provides
a cancellation effect that helps neutralize
noise and null out interference.
Because the signals in each wire of the
pair are going opposite directions, the
interference adds to the signal in one wire
as it resists the signal in the other wire.
The result is that in twisted-pairs,
interference such as EMI and RFI tends
to be canceled out.
SHIELDED
TWISTED
PAIR
(STP)
GENERAL DESCRIPTION

Combines the techniques of shielding,


cancellation, and wire twisting.
Each pair of wires is wrapped in a
metallic foil.
The four pairs of wires then are
wrapped in an overall metallic braid or
foil, usually 150-ohm cable.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
STP reduces electrical noise both
within the cable (pair-to-pair coupling,
or crosstalk) and from outside the
cable (EMI and RFI).
STP usually is installed with STP data
connector, which is created especially
for the STP cable.
STP cabling also can use the same RJ
connectors that UTP uses.
PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION

Electronic symbol
for a shielded
wire

STP cable has shielding around each pair


to prevent EMI and crosstalk.
PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION

STP combines the techniques of


shielding. Cancellation and twisting of
wires.
As specified for use in Ethernet Network
installation, 100 STP cable provides
greater resistance to both
electromagnetic interference without
significantly increasing the weight or size
of the cable.
FEATURES OF STP

Speed and throughput


10 to 100 Mbps
Average cost per node
Moderately Expensive
Media and connector size
Medium to Large
Maximum cable length
100 m (short)
FEATURES OF STP

Speed and throughput


10 to 100 Mbps
Average cost per node
Moderately Expensive
Media and connector size
Medium to Large
Maximum cable length
100 m (short)
APPLICATIONS
SHIELDED
TWISTED PAIR
APPLICATIONS OF STP

For industrial settings with high


amounts of electromagnetic
interference
Factories with large electronic
equipment
Security systems
Microphones
Mixer
ADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGES
(SHIELDED
TWISTED PAIR)
ADVANTAGES

Shielded
Faster than UTP and Coaxial
This cable has all of the
advantages and disadvantages of
unshielded twisted pair cable.
STP afford greater protection from
all types of external interference
than UTP.
DISADVANTAGES
STP is more expensive than UTP.

More difficult installation process


Unless the minimum bend
radius and maximum pulling
tension are rigidly observed
when these cables are
installed, the shield can be torn.
UNSHIELDED
TWISTED
PAIR
(UTP)
UNSHIELDED TWISTED PAIR
(UTP)
UTP cable is a medium that is composed of
pairs of wires.
Each of the eight individual copper wires in
UTP cable is covered by an insulating
material. In addition, the wires in each pair are
twisted around each other.
UTP cable relies solely on the cancellation
effect produced by the twisted wire pairs to
limit signal degradation caused by
electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio
frequency interference (RFI).
UNSHIELDED TWISTED PAIR
(UTP)
UTP cable often is installed using a Registered
Jack 45 (RJ-45) connector. The RJ-45 is an
eight-wire connector used commonly to connect
computers onto a local-area network (LAN),
especially Ethernets.
When used as a networking medium, UTP cable
has four pairs of either 22- or 24-gauge copper
wire.
UTP used as a networking medium has an
impedance of 100 ohms; this differentiates it
from other types of twisted-pair wiring such as
that used for telephone wiring, which has
impedance of 600 ohms.
UNSHIELDED TWISTED PAIR
(UTP)
Consists of 4 pairs (8 wires) of insulated
copper wires typically about 1 mm thick
The wires are twisted together in a helical
form
High bandwidth and High attenuation channel
Flexible and cheap cable
Category rating based on number of twists
per inch and the material used
CAT 3, CAT 4, CAT 5, Enhanced CAT 5 and
now CAT 6.
UNSHIELDED TWISTED PAIR
CONNECTOR
UNSHIELDED TWISTED PAIR
ASSIGNMENT

PC PC

Name NIC1 Color Name NIC2 Color


TX+ (BI_DA+) 1 White/Orange RX+ (BI_DB+) 3 White/Orange
TX- (BI_DA-) 2 Orange RX- (BI_DB-) 6 Orange
RX+ (BI_DB+) 3 White/Green TX+ (BI_DA+) 1 White/Green
- (BI_DC+) 4 Blue - (BI_DD+) 7 Blue
- (BI_DC-) 5 White/Blue - (BI_DD-) 8 White/Blue
RX- (BI_DB-) 6 Green TX- (BI_DA-) 2 Green
- (BI_DD+) 7 White/Brown - (BI_DC+) 4 White/Brown
- (BI_DD-) 8 Brown - (BI_DC-) 5 Brown

One side of Cable The other side of Cable


WHY USE UTP?

Fast, easy wire installation


Low labor costs
Less costly cabling
Easier maintenance
Long range transmission
Better interference immunity
Multiple video signals in the same bundle.
RS485/RS422 data signal transmission
24VAC/DC power transmission
Take advantage of Structured Building
Wiring
WHERE TO USE UTP?

Perfect for larger CCTV installations where need


install many cameras, difficult in using coaxial
cable, existing many interference environment.

To Provide:
Clear Video Signal
Fewer Cable to Manage
Lower Cost Per Connection
Centralized Wiring For Greater Control
WHERE TO USE UTP?
Modern structured cabling systems in new
construction
Installations with a high camera count
High Interference areas
Where there is existing structured cabling
School Campuses, Casinos, Hospitals,
Apartment
Warehouses, Entry Gates, Elevator
Parking Lot and Power Plant
Prisons and Traffic Control
Shopping Mall
WHERE TO USE UTP?
TRANSMISSION COMPARISONS
Smaller conductors
More flexible and dense
Color-coded
Superior interference immunity
Low cable costs
Easy Wiring
Active units built in transient protection
Active units built in ground loop lifting
Active unit built in gain control
Long range transmission (up to 2.4 KMS)
UTP TRANSMISSION RANGE

PASSIVE: NO POWER REQUIRED

ACTIVE: EXTERNA POWER REQUIRED


Built in Gain Control
Transient Protection
Built in Ground Loop Isolation
UTP TRANSMISSION RANGE

Color: 300 meters


B/W: 600 meters

Color: 600 meters


B/W: 1 KM

Color: 1.5
KM
B/W: 2 KM
UTP TRANSMISSION RANGE
TYPICAL
NAME BANDWIDTH APPLICATIONS NOTES
INSTRUCTION

Not described in EIA/TIA


Telephone and recommendations.
Level 1 0.4 MHz
modem lines Unsuitable for modern
systems.

Not described in EIA/TIA


Older terminal
recommendations.
Level 2 4 MHz systems, e.g. IBM
Unsuitable for modern
3270
systems.

Described in EIA/TIA-568.
10BASE-T and Unsuitable for speeds
Cat 3 UTP 16 MHz 100BASE- above 16 Mbit/s. Now
T4 Ethernet[9] mainly for telephone
cables
UTP TRANSMISSION RANGE
NAME TYPICAL
TYPICAL INSTRUCTION BANDWIDTH APPLICATIONS NOTES
NAME BANDWIDTH APPLICATIONS NOTES
INSTRUCTION

Telephone and modem


Level 1 Not described in EIA/TIA recommendat
0.4 MHz
16 Mbit/s
lines [9] Token
Cat 4 UTP 20 MHz Not commonly
ions. Unsuitable used
for modern systems.
Ring [8]

Common for current


Level 2 4 MHz 100BASE-TX
Older terminal syste Not& described
LANs.in EIA/TIA
Superseded
recommendatby
Cat 5 UTP 100 MHz ms,1000BASE-
e.g. IBM 3270 Cat5e,forbut
ions. Unsuitable
[8]
most
modern Cat5
systems.

T Ethernet [9]
cable meets Cat5e
standards.
Enhanced Cat5.
10BASE-T and Common for current
Cat 3 UTP[9] 16 MHz[9] 100BASE-TX
100BASE-T4 Ethernet &
Described in EIA/TIA-568. Unsuitable
[9]

LANs.
for speeds above Same
16 Mbit/s. Now mainl
Cat 5e UTP 100 MHz 1000BASE-y for telephone cables[9]
construction as Cat5,
T Ethernet[9]
but with better testing
standards.
UTP TRANSMISSION RANGE
NAME TYPICAL
TYPICAL INSTRUCTION BANDWIDTH APPLICATIONS NOTES
NAME BANDWIDTH APPLICATIONS NOTES
INSTRUCTION
ISO/IEC 11801 2nd Ed.
Level 1 0.4 MHz
Telephone and modem (2002), ANSI/TIA 568-
Not described in EIA/TIA recommendat
lines
10GBASE- ions.B.2-1. UnsuitableMost commonly
for modern systems.
Cat 6 UTP 250 MHz [8]
T Ethernet installed cable in Finland
according to the 2002
standard EN 50173-1.

Level 2 4 MHz Adds cable shielding.


Older terminal syste Not described in EIA/TIA recommendat
ms, e.g. IBM 3270 ions. Unsuitable for modern systems.
10GBASE- [8] ISO/IEC 11801 2nd Ed.
Cat 6A U/FTP, F/UTP 500 MHz
T Ethernet Am. 2. (2008), ANSI/TIA-
568-C.1 (2009)

Cat 3 UTP[9] 16 MHz[9]


10GBASE-
10BASE-T and
Described in EIA/TIA-568. Unsuitable
T Ethernet.POT for speeds
100BASE-T4 Ethernet
Fully shielded cable.
[9]
above 16 Mbit/s. Now mainl
y for telephone cables[9]
Cat 7 F/FTP, S/FTP 600 MHz S/CATV/1000BA ISO/IEC 11801 2nd Ed.
SE-T over single (2002)
cable.
UTP TRANSMISSION RANGE
NAMETYPICAL
TYPICAL INSTRUCTION BANDWIDTH APPLICATIONS NOTES
NAME BANDWIDTH APPLICATIONS NOTES
INSTRUCTION
10GBASE-
Level 1 0.4 MHz T Ethernet.POTS
Telephone and modem
lines
Uses
Not described all four
in EIA/TIA pairs.
recommendat
ions. Unsuitable for modern systems.
Cat 7A F/FTP, S/FTP 1000 MHz /CATV/1000BAS [8]
ISO/IEC 11801 2nd
E-T over single Ed. Am. 2. (2008)
cable.
40GBASE-
Level 2 4 MHz T Ethernet.POTS In indevelopment
Older terminal syste Not described EIA/TIA recommendat
ms, e.g. IBM 3270 ions. Unsuitable for modern systems.
Cat 8/8.1 U/FTP, F/UTP 1600-2000 MHz /CATV/1000BAS [8] (ANSI/TIA-568-C.2-1,
E-T over single ISO/IEC 11801 3rd Ed.)
cable.
40GBASE-
16 MHz[9] T Ethernet.POTS
10BASE-T and
Cat 3 UTP[9] Described in EIA/TIA-568. Unsuitable
for speeds In development
100BASE-T4 Ethernet [9]
above 16 Mbit/s. Now mainl
Cat 8.2 F/FTP, S/FTP 1600-2000 MHz /CATV/1000BAS y for(ISO/IEC 11801 3rd Ed.)
telephone cables[9]
E-T over single
cable.
AVAILABLE
IN MARKET
(UTP)
AVAILABLE IN MARKET
(UTP)
CAT-5e
100 MHz unshielded
Twisted pair cabling usage is in significant
decline as does not support newer emerging
applications and signaling technologies.
It has been used for primarily 100 Mbps
through 1 Gbps Ethernet 1-100-m LAN
applications.
The older CAT-5 UTP cable is only good for
100 Mbps up to 100 m and is in the
maintenance-to-end-of-life phase of its
product lifecycle.
AVAILABLE IN MARKET
(UTP)
CAT-6
250 MHz UTP cable only supports 10 Gbps
short length applications from 35-55 m
depending on crosstalk environment.
CAT-6a 500 MHz UTP and also shielded
twisted pair have become the most popular
usage type in North.
The IEEE-802.3bz Ethernet standards
committee is developing 2.5GBaseT and
5GBaseT 100M specifications that will help to
support IoT applications
AVAILABLE IN MARKET
(UTP)

CAT-7
600MHz individually shielded pair cabling with
overall cable shield.
It was initiated by European market leaders
and standards bodies for 10 Gbps 100-m
Ethernet LAN applications with better crosstalk
control performance than CAT-6a.
AVAILABLE IN MARKET
(UTP)

CAT-7 or CAT-7a Standards


CAT-7a 1000MHz also with individually
shielded pairs and overall cable shield is
supported by the ISO cabling standard
organization.
It is the most popular structured cabling type in
the western countries of Europe.
This cable type appears to support the
developing IEEE-802.3bq 25GBaseT and
40GBaseT up to 50 m.
AVAILABLE IN MARKET
(UTP)
CAT-8
1.6GHz and 2GHz STP 1-30-m cabling
standards and specifications are in final
harmonized development with national
ANSI/TIA-568-C-2.1 and international ISO/IEC
11801-99-1 standards bodies.
CAT-8.1 1.6GHz backward compatible with
CAT-6a connectors targeting 25GBaseT
applications.
The CAT-8.2 2GHz specification is being
driven by Transceiver companies working
within the IEEE-802.3bq committee, primarily
targeting 40GBaseT applications.
AVAILABLE IN MARKET
(UTP)
CAT-8
CAT-8 cabling is larger in diameter size,
thus taking more room and limiting airflow.
It also weighs more, sometimes being too
heavy for older data center floors and is
harder to route in the infrastructure and
racks.
TYPES OF
UTP
(IN TABLE)
TYPES OF UTP (IN TABLE)

CATEGORY 1/2/3/4/5/6/7
A specification for the type of copper wire
(most telephone and network wire is copper)
and jacks.
The number (1, 3, 5, etc) refers to the
revision of the specification and in practical
terms refers to the number of twists inside
the wire (or the quality of connection in a
jack).
TYPES OF UTP (IN TABLE)

CAT1
Typically used for telephone wire.
This type of wire is not capable of supporting
computer network traffic and is not twisted.
CAT1is also used by telco companies
providing ISDN and PSTN services.
In such cases the wiring between the
customer's site and the telcos network is
performed using CAT 1 type cable.
TYPES OF UTP (IN TABLE)
CAT2, CAT3, CAT4, CAT5/5e,CAT6 &
CAT 7
Network wire specifications.
This type of wire can support computer
network and telephone traffic.
CAT2 is used mostly for token ring networks,
supporting speeds up to 4 Mbps.
For higher network speeds (100 Mbps or
higher) CAT5e must be used, but for the
almost extinct 10 Mbps speed requirements,
CAT3 will suffice.
TYPES OF UTP (IN TABLE)
CAT3, CAT4 and CAT5
Cables are actually 4 pairs of twisted copper
wires.
CAT5 has more twists per inch than CAT3
therefore can run at higher speeds and greater
lengths.
CAT3 and CAT4 are both used for Token Ring
networks -- where CAT 3 can provide support
of a maximum 10Mbps, while CAT4 pushed
the limit up to 16Mbps. Both categories have a
limit of 100 meters.
TYPES OF UTP (IN TABLE)

CAT5 Wire
Later on replaced by the CAT5e
specification which provides improved
crosstalk specification, allowing it to support
speeds of up to 1Gbps.
CAT5e is the most widely used cabling
specification world-wide and unlike the
category cables that follow, is very forgiving
when the cable termination and deployment
guidelines are not met.
TYPES OF UTP (IN TABLE)

CAT6 wire
Originally designed to support gigabit
Ethernet, although there are standards that
will allow gigabit transmission over CAT5e
wire.
It is similar to CAT5e wire, but contains a
physical separator between the four pairs to
further reduce electromagnetic interference.
CAT6 is able to support speeds of 1Gbps for
lengths of up to 100 meters, and 10Gbps is
also supported for lengths of up to 55 meters.
TYPES OF UTP (IN TABLE)

CAT6A
Introduced as a higher specification cable
Offering better immunization to crosstalk
and electromagnetic interference.

CAT7
Newer copper cable specification
designed to support speeds of 10Gbps at
lengths of up to 100 meters.
SPECIFICATIONS
UTP CATEGORIES
(CAT3, CAT4, CAT5,
CAT5E, CAT6, AND
CAT7 CABLES)
TYPES OF UTP (IN TABLE)

CATEGORY TYPE SPECTRAL B/W LENGTH LAN APPLICATIONS NOTES

Now mainly for


Cat3 UTP 16 MHz 100m 10Base-T, 4Mbps
telephone cables

Cat4 UTP 20 MHz 100m 16Mbps Rarely seen

Common for
Cat5 UTP 100MHz 100m 100Base-Tx,ATM,CDDI
current LANs

Common for
Cat5e UTP 100MHz 100m 1000Base-T
current LANs

Cat6 UTP 250MHz 100m Emerging

Cat7 ScTP 600MHz 100m


TYPES OF UTP (IN TABLE)
CAT5, CAT5e, and CAT6 UTP
Solid Cable Specifications Comparison
Category 5 Category 5e Category 6
Frequency 100 MHz 100 MHz 250 MHz

Attenuation (Min. at 100 MHz) 22 dB 22 dB 19.8 dB

Characteristic Impedance 100 ohms 15% 100 ohms 15% 100 ohms 15%

NEXT (Min. at 100 MHz) 32.3 dB 35.3 dB 44.3 dB


PS-NEXT (Min. at 100 MHz) No Specification 32.3 dB 42.3 dB
ELFEXT (Min. at 100 MHz) No Specification 23.8 dB 27.8 dB

PS-ELFEXT (Min. at 100 MHz) No Specification 20.8 dB 24.8 dB

Return Loss (Min. at 100 MHz) 16.0 dB 20.1 dB 20.1 dB

Delay Skew (Max. per 100 m) No Specification 45 ns 45 ns


FEATURES OF UTP CABLE

Speed and throughput


10 to 1000 Mbps
Average cost per node
Least expensive
Media and connector size
Small
Maximum cable length
100 m (short)
APPLICATIONS
OF UTP
UTP Transmission Products

Cable Hub Series


Passive Series Active Series

1U Rack Panel Series


3U Rack Card Series

UTP Video Distributor Series VGA Extender


APPLICATION
(4 CAMERAS OVER
ONE CABLE)
APPLICATION
(4 CHANNEL HUB)
APPLICATION
(1U RACK PANEL)
APPLICATION
(CCTV PROFFESIONAL CABLE)
APPLICATION
(CAT 5 VGA EXTENDER)
SUMMARY