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# Building Code Requirements for

## Structural Concrete (ACI 318M-11)

Design of Slender Columns by ACI 318

David Darwin
Vietnam Institute for Building Science and
Technology (IBST)

## December 12-16, 2011

This morning

Slender columns
Walls
High-strength concrete
Slender columns
Notation
Effective length factors and effect of
slenderness on strength
Moment magnification
ACI design criteria
Design procedures
Nonlinear second order analysis
Linear second order analysis
Moment magnification procedure
Notation
I = moment of inertia
A = area of cross section
r = radius of gyration = I A
, l = column length
k = slenderness ratio = k/r
Et I
2
kl
2

## Et = tangential modulus of elasticity

Braced columns: effective length factor k 1
Unbraced columns: effective length factor k 1
Effect of slenderness on column strength
2 E t I 2E t A
Pc
kl kl r
2 2
Frames
k(braced) < k(unbraced)

## Braced frame Unbraced frame

Pc2 << Pc1
Moment magnification the P- effect
Moment magnification

## For a column in single curvature:

1
y y0
1 P Pc
and
1
Mmax M0
1 P Pc
Moment magnification
For a column in double curvature with
equal end moments:

1
y y0
1 P 4Pc
Moment magnification
More generally, when the end moments
are not equal:
Cm
Mmax M0
1 P Pc
where
M1
Cm 0.6 0.4 0.4, M 2 M1
M2
Define: M1 M2 0 for single curvature
0 for double curvature
ACI design criteria
Braced (nonsway):
Neglect slenderness when
ku/r 34 12M1/M2
40
where u = unsupported length (clear distance)

Unbraced (sway):
Neglect slenderness when
ku/r 22
Alignment charts to determine k
Alignment charts to determine k

## = ratio of (EI/c) of compression members to

(EI/) of flexural members in a plane at one
end of a compression member

## c, = span length of column or flexural

member center-to-center of joints
Design procedures
Nonlinear second-order analysis

## Moment magnifier procedure

Nonlinear second-order analysis
Linear second order analysis
Section properties
Moments of inertia:
Beams 0.35Ig
Columns 0.70Ig
Walls uncracked 0.70Ig
cracked 0.35Ig
Flat plates and flat slabs 0.25Ig

Area 1.0Ag

## Modulus of elasticity Ec next slide

Modulus of elasticity Ec

For members under sustained lateral load,
divide I by (1 + ds), where
maximum factored sustained shear within story
ds 1 .0
maximum factored shear within story
Moment magnification procedure

Mmax = M0
Nonsway versus sway structures
Nonsway if
Pu o
Q 0.05
Vus l c
where
Pu sum of factored vertical loads in a story
Vus factored horizontal shear in a story
o 1st-order relative story deflection
l c column length, center-to-center of joints
Note:

Q P Pc

## Thus, for Q 0.05, Mmax 1.05M0

Nonsway frames

Mc ns M2 ; M2,min Pu 15 0.03h
Cm
ns 1 .0
1 Pu 0.75Pc
2EI
Pc Stiffness reduction
k u
2
factor
M1
Cm 0.6 0.4 0 .4
M2
EI

EI
0.2E I c g EsIse
1 dns
or
0.4EcIg
EI
1 dns

## maximum factored axial sustained load

dns 1.0
Sway frames
Moments M1 and M2 at ends of member
M1 M1ns s M1s
M2 M2ns s M2s
1
s 1; if s 1.5, use second-order
1 Q
elastic analysis or
1
s 1
1 Pu 0.75Pc
When calculating s
k 1.0

## maximum factored sustained shear within story

ds 1 .0
maximum factored shear within story

ds is most often = 0

## Pu and Pc summed for all columns on floor

Summary
Notation
Effective length factors and effect of
slenderness on strength
Moment magnification
ACI design criteria
Design procedures
Nonlinear second order analysis
Linear second order analysis
Moment magnification procedure
29
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
1221 Avenue of the America
New York, NY 10020 USA

American Concrete Institute
38800 Country Club Drive
Farmington Hills, MI 48331 USA

## Duplication authorized for use with this presentation only.

The University of
Kansas

## David Darwin, Ph.D., P.E.

Deane E. Ackers Distinguished Professor
Director, Structural Engineering & Materials Laboratory

## Dept. of Civil, Environmental & Architectural Engineering

2142 Learned Hall
Lawrence, Kansas, 66045-7609
(785) 864-3827 Fax: (785) 864-5631

daved@ku.edu
Slender columns