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# Footing Design

Types of Footing
Wall footings are used to
support structural walls that
or to support nonstructural
walls.
Types of Footing
Isolated or single footings
are used to support single
columns. This is one of the
most economical types of
footings and is used when
columns are spaced at
relatively long distances.
Types of Footing
Combined footings usually
support two columns, or
three columns not in a row.
Combined footings are used
when two columns are so
close that single footings
cannot be used or when one
column is located at or near
a property line.
Types of Footing

## Cantilever or strap footings

consist of two single
footings connected with a
beam or a strap and support
two single columns. This
type replaces a combined
footing and is more
economical.
Types of Footing
Continuous footings
support a row of three or
more columns. They have
limited width and continue
under all columns.
Types of Footing
Rafted or mat foundation
consists of one footing
usually placed under the
entire building area. They
are used, when soil bearing
capacity is low, column
footings cannot be used,
piles are not used and
differential settlement must
be reduced.
Types of Footing
Pile caps are thick slabs
used to tie a group of piles
together to support and
piles.
Distribution of Soil
Pressure
P is applied on the
centroid of the footing,
a uniform pressure is
assumed to develop on
the soil surface below
the footing area.
However the actual
distribution of the soil
is not uniform, but
depends on may
Distribution of Soil
Pressure

## Soil pressure Soil pressure

distribution in distribution in cohesive
cohesionless soil. soil.
footings
footings Example
Isolated Footing M
D.L = 900 kN
L.L = 450 kN
Ms = 150kN.m
Mu=200kN.m
qall =200kpa
Area required approximated
qall ( net ) 20t / m 2 200kPa
Ps (900 450) 103
Ag 6. 75m 2

## qall ( net ) 200 103

use 3.5m 2.5m
183.7
A 8.75m 2
124.7

I 3.5122.5 8.9m 4
3

Check stress
M 150
e 0.111 L6 36.5 0.583
P 1350
Ps M s C 1350 150 32.5
183.7 kPa
A I 8.75 8.9
Ps M s C 1350 150 32.5
124.7kPa
A I 8.75 8.9
Ultimate pressure under footing
Pu 1.2 900 1.6(450) 1800kN
M u 200kN .m
Pu M u C 1800 200 32.5
245kPa
A I 8.75 8.9
Pu M u C 1800 200 32.5
166kPa
A I 8.75 8.9

245
166

245
Check Punching Shear

## bo 4 (530 400) 3720cm

For square column the suitable VC equation is :
fc ' 25
VC bo d 0.75 530 3720 / 1000 2464.5kN
3 3

## VU (166 245 166 245 )

4 3.5 2.5 1798kN
Check Beam Shear
25
VC 0.75 530 2500 / 1000 828.13kN
6

## VU at d from column face

223 245
VU * 1.5 0.53 * 2.5
2
567.5kN
VU VC
3.5m
Bending moment design
Long direction
245
M U at d from column face 166
P1 211(1.5)(2.5) 791.25kN 245
P2 12 (245 211)(1.5)(2.5) 63.75kN
M U P1 (0.75) P2 (1) 791.25(0.75) 63.75(1) 657.2kN .m
b 2500, d 530mm
25 2 10 6 * 657.2
0.85 * 1- 1- 0.00254
420 0.9 0.85 25 * 530 * 2500
2

## AS 0.00254 530 1000 1346mm 2 13.5cm 2 use 716 / m long direction

Bending moment design 2.5m
Short direction
M U at d from column face 245
166
245 166
MU 1 3.5 0.5 719.25kN .m 245
2
b 3500, d 530mm
25 2 10 6 * 719.25
0.85 * 1- 1- 0.002
420 0.9 0.85 25 * 530 * 3500
2

## AS 0.002 530 1000 1060mm 2 10.1cm 2 short direction

Central band ratio =

3.5
1.4
2.5
2 2
0.83
1 2.4
Central band of short direction = 0.83 As = 0.83 (10.1
214 714/m 214

716/m
Footing Design
Part II
Combined footing
Example 1
Design a combined footing As shown

## qall ( net ) 20t / m 2 200kPa f c 25 N mm 2 f y 420 N mm 2

Dimension calculation
The base dimension to get uniform distributed lo
2000kN
kN 800 kN 1200

A
x1=0.2m
x2=6.2m

x
800(0.2)+1200(6.2)=2000(x
x = 3.8m

kN 800 kN 1200

Try
thickness
2x =7.6 =80cm
Area required
qall ( net ) 20t / m 2 200kPa,
Pu 1.3( Ps ) 1.3(2000) 2600kN
Ps 2000 103
Ag 10 m 2
7.6 *1.8
qall ( net ) 200 10 3

Pu 2600 103
qu 190 103 Pa 190kPa
A 7.6 *1.8
Check for punching Shear
d = 730 mm

1.13m

0.765
A
bo 2(765) 1130 2260mm
fc ' 25
VC bo d 0.75 730 2260 / 1000 2062.3kN
3 3
d fc ' 30 730 25
VC 2 s bo d 0.75 2 730 2260 / 1000 6027 kN
b 12 2260 12

## VU 800(1.3) 1.13 * 0.765 *190 875.8kN Vc oK

B
bo 4 (730 400) 4520mm
fc ' 25
VC bo d 0.75 730 4520 / 1000 4124.4kN
3 3
s d fc ' 40 730 25
VC 2 bo d 0.75 2 730 4520 / 1000 13322.5kN
b 12 4520 12

## VU 1200(1.3) 1.13 *1.13 *190 1317.4kN Vc oK

Draw S.F.D & B.M.D

## Stress under footing

= 190 *1.8 = 342 kN/m
Check for beam shear
b = 1800mm, d =
730mm
25
VC 0.75 730 1800 / 1000 821.25kN
6
Max. VU at d from column face 762.34kN
VU VC
Bending moment Long direction

ve M 1366kN .m
b 1800mm, d 730mm
25 2 106 *1366
0.85 * 1- 1- 0.0039
420 0.9 0.85 25 * 730 *1800
2

## AS 0.0039 730 1000 2847 mm 2 28.5cm 2 use 9 20 / m Top

ve M 246.7kN .m
b 1800mm, d 730mm
25 2 106 * 246.7
0.85 * 1- 1- 0.0007 min
420 0.9 0.85 25 * 730 *1800
2

## AS min 0.0018 800 1000 1440mm 2 14.4cm 2 use 716 / m Bottom

Bending moment Short direction

Under Column A
2
1040 0.765 1.8 0.4
M 141.6
(1.8 * 0.765) 2 2
b 765mm, d 730mm
25 2 106 *141.6
0.85 * 1- 1- min
420 0.9 0.85 25 * 730 * 765
2

## AS min 0.0018 800 765 1101 .6mm 2 11cm 2 use 714 / m

Under Column B
2
1560 1.13 1.8 0.4
M 212.33
(1.8 *1.13) 2 2
b 1130 mm, d 730mm
25 2 106 * 212.33
0.85 * 1- 1- min
420 0.9 0.85 25 * 730 *1130
2

## Shrinkage Reinforcement in short direction

AS min 0.0018 800 765 1101 .6mm 2 11cm 2 use 714 / m
Footing Design
Part III
mbined footing, strip footing, & Mat foun
Example 2
Design a combined footing As shown

## qall ( net ) 18 t / m 2 180kPa f c 25 N mm 2 f y 420 N mm 2

Dimension calculation
The base dimension to get uniform distributed lo
1950kN
kN 1200 kN 750
750(4.2)+1200(0.2)=1
A 950 (x)
1=0.2m
x2=4 x = 1.75m
x .2m

B1 2 B2 L
x
B1 B2 3
Area required
qall ( net ) 20t / m 2 200kPa,
Ps 1950 103
Ag 10 . 8 m 2

## qall ( net ) 180 103

B1 B2
L 10.8
2
B1 B2
4.35 10.8
2
B1 B2
2.5
2
B1 B2 5
B1 2 B2 L 5 B2 4.35
x
B
1 B 2 3 5 3
1.75 1.45 0.29 B2
B2 1m Pu 1.31950 103
qu 235 103 Pa 235kPa
B1 4 m A 10.8
Check for punching Shear
h= 750mm
d = 732 mm

A B2=1m

## bo 2(732) 1065 2590mm B1=4m

fc ' 25
VC bo d 0.75 665 2590 / 1000 2160.4kN
3 3
d fc ' 30 665 25
VC 2 s bo d 0.75 2 665 2590 / 1000 5222kN
b 12 2590 12

B

## bo 2(633) 965 2231 mm

fc ' 25
VC bo d 0.75 665 2231 / 1000 1854.5kN
3 3
s d fc ' 30 665 25
VC 2 bo d 0.75 2 665 2231 / 1000 5273kN
b 12 2231 12

## VU 800(1.3) 0.965 * 0.633 * 235 896.5kN Vc oK

Draw S.F.D & B.M.D
Empirical S.F.D & B.M.D

## Convert trapezoidal load to rectangle

1560 (0.70) 1092
wave 235 23 (940 235) 705
Mmax
705 3.65
2 2
wl
M max 1174 kN .m
8 8

## Clear distance between column

B in moment design = ave. width = 2.5m
Check for beam shear
d = 665mm
b 1 2( Lx ) y
at x 0.815 0.15
1 2( 04.965
.35 ) 1.5 1.7 m 1700 mm

25
VC 0.75 665 1700 / 1000 696kN
6
Max. VU at d from column B face ( the most critical) 668kN
VU VC
Y=1.5m b

x 1m

4m
Bending moment Long direction
Top
b 1 2( 24..25
35 ) 1.5 2.60m 2600
ve M 1260kN .m
d 730mm
25 2 106 *1260
0.85 * 1- 1- 0.003
420 0.9 0.85 25 * 665 * 2600
2

Bottom

## AS min 0.0018 750 1000 1350mm 2 13.5cm 2 use 914 / m Bottom

Bending moment Short direction
Under Column A

b' 1 2( 34..62
35 ) 1.5 3.5m 3500mm

b' 1 2( 04.633
.35 ) 1.5 1.44m 1440mm

3.5 4
b m 3.75m 3750mm
2
2
1560 0.733 3.75 0.4
M 583.6
(3.75 * 0.733) 2 2
d 665mm
25 2 106 * 583.57
0.85 * 1- 1- 0.005
420 0.9 0.85 25 * 665 * 733
2

## AS 0.005 665 733 3325mm 2 33cm 2 use 10 20

Under Column B

1.44 1
b m 1.22m 1220mm
2

2
975 0.633 1.22 0.3
M 84.6
(1.22 * 0.633) 2 2
b 633mm, d 665mm
25 2 106 * 84.6
0.85 * 1- 1- min
420 0.9 0.85 25 * 665 * 633
2

## Shrinkage Reinforcement in short direction

AS min 0.0018 1000 750 1350mm 2 13.5cm 2 use 914 / m
Reinforcement details
Example 3 (Strip footing)
Design a combined footing As shown

## qall ( net ) 20t / m 2 200kPa f c 25 N mm 2 f y 420 N mm 2

Dimension calculation
The base dimension to get uniform distributed lo
3040kN
kN 800 kN 1280 kN 960

A
Assume
L1=0.6 x1=5.2 L2
m x2=10.
x 7m

800(0.6)+1280(5.1)+960(10.
6)=
3040 (x)
x = 5.65m,
2(x)=11.3m
qall ( net ) 18t / m 2 180kPa,
Ps 3040 103
Ag 16. 9 m 2
11.3m 1.8m
qall ( net ) 180 10 3

## Pu 1.3 3040 103

qu 195 103 Pa 195kPa
A 11.3 1.8
Check for punching Shear
h = 700 mm
d=630mm

Example

B
bo 4(630 400)) 4120mm
fc ' 25
VC bo d 0.75 630 4120 / 1000 3244.5kN
3 3
s d fc ' 40 630 25
VC 2 bo d 0.75 2 630 4120 / 1000 6584kN
b 12 4120 12

## You can check other columns

Draw S.F.D & B.M.D Stress under footing
= 195 *1.8 = 351 kN/m
Check for beam shear
b = 1800mm, d =
630mm
25
VC 0.75 630 1800 / 1000 708.75kN
6
Max. VU at d from column face 0.7(1009) 706.3kN
VU VC
Bending moment Long direction

ve M 1366kN .m
b 1800mm, d 730mm
25 2 106 *1365
0.85 * 1- 1- 0.0053
420 0.9 0.85 25 * 630 *1800
2

## AS 0.0053 630 1000 3362mm 2 33.6cm 2 use 9 22 / m Top

ve M 246.7 kN .m
b 1800mm, d 730mm
25 2 106 * 81
0.85 * 1- 1- min
420 0.9 0.85 25 * 730 *1800
2

## Design Short direction as example 1 (lecture 1

Reinforcement details
Mat Foundation
Check for punching Shear
General Example, Ref. 2