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GLE/CEE 330: Soil Mechanics

Introduction to Foundation

Geological Engineering
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Learning Objectives

Define key terms in foundation engineering

Discuss types of shallow and deep foundations

Describe basic foundation design philosophy

Key Terms
Foundation: structure that transmits loads to
underlying soils.

Shallow Foundations
(Df/B < 2.5-4.0)

Deep Foundations
(Df/B > 4.0)

Df = Embedment Depth
B = Characteristic Length )
Key Terms
Bearing Capacity (q): Pressure that a soil can
support (soil property)
Ultimate bearing capacity (qult): Max. pressure soil can support
(determined by analysis)

Net bearing capacity (qnet): Max. pressure soil can support above
current overburden pressure (account for embedment effect)

Allowable bearing capacity (qall): Design soil bearing pressure

F .S .

F.S. = Factor of Safety (2.5 3.5) (Allowable Stress Design)

Allowable Stress Design (ASD) qall
F .S .
Historical Approach in Geotechnical Engineering
Blanket factor of safety

conservativ More
e conservative
(More Risk) (More Cost)

Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD)

Modern Approach in Geotechnical Engineering

Factored Load (Q) < Factored Resistance (R)

i are load factors for different types of loads ( 1.0)

are resistance factor(s) for nominal resistance ( 1.0)

Effectively accounts for uncertainty in a quantitative way

Structures may be designed for a specific amount of risk

Types of Foundation Loads
1) Normal Loads
2) Shear Loads
3) Moment Loads
4) Torsion Loads

Load Sources:

1) Dead Loads 8) Impact Loads

2) Snow Loads 9) Temperature Induced Loads
3) Earth Pressure 10) Stream/Ice Loads
4) Fluid Loads 11) Centrifugal/Braking
5) Earthquake Loads 12) Shear Loads
6) Wind Loads

Shallow Foundation Types
Spread Footing (column loads)

Shallow Foundation Types
Strip Footing (wall loads)
Shallow Foundation Types
Mat (Raft) Foundation
(floor loads)
Deep Foundations
Insufficient soil bearing capacity near surface

Excessive settlements on shallow foundations

Differential settlements on shallow foundations

Constructability issues (e.g., shallow GWT)

Lateral loads, uplift forces

(wind, waves, earthquakes, earth pressure)
Deep Foundation Types
1) Piles
Steel (H-piles, tubes, mandrels)
Reinforced Concrete
Cast-in-place concrete
Displacement vs. Non-
Driving stresses

H-Pile Concrete Pile

Deep Foundation Types
2) Drilled Shafts
B = 2-30 ft (0.6-9 m)
L < 300 ft (91 m)
Large Lateral Load Resistance

Pile Load Transfer (Single Pile)

Qf = shaft friction or side shear

Qb = end bearing

If Qf >0.8Qb then friction pile

If Qb = 0 (design assumption)
then floating pile
Pile Groups
Foundation Design Philosophy
Limit State = condition beyond which a
component/member of a foundation or other structure
ceases to satisfy the provisions for which the
component/member was designed

Strength Limit State (bearing capacity analysis)

Service Limit State (settlement analysis)
Extreme Event Limit State
Fatigue Limit State