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# GLE/CEE 330: Soil Mechanics

Introduction to Foundation
Engineering

Geological Engineering
Learning Objectives

## Describe basic foundation design philosophy

Key Terms
Foundation: structure that transmits loads to
underlying soils.

Shallow Foundations
(Df/B < 2.5-4.0)

Deep Foundations
(Df/B > 4.0)

Df = Embedment Depth
(Coduto
B = Characteristic Length )
Key Terms
Bearing Capacity (q): Pressure that a soil can
support (soil property)
Ultimate bearing capacity (qult): Max. pressure soil can support
(determined by analysis)

Net bearing capacity (qnet): Max. pressure soil can support above
current overburden pressure (account for embedment effect)

qnet
qall
F .S .

## F.S. = Factor of Safety (2.5 3.5) (Allowable Stress Design)

ASD vs. LRFD
qnet
Allowable Stress Design (ASD) qall
F .S .
Historical Approach in Geotechnical Engineering
Blanket factor of safety

Less
conservativ More
e conservative
(More Risk) (More Cost)
ASD vs. LRFD

## Structures may be designed for a specific amount of risk

3) Earth Pressure 10) Stream/Ice Loads

(Coduto
)
Shallow Foundation Types

(Alex
Shallow Foundation Types
Shallow Foundation Types
Mat (Raft) Foundation
Deep Foundations
Insufficient soil bearing capacity near surface

## Constructability issues (e.g., shallow GWT)

(wind, waves, earthquakes, earth pressure)
Deep Foundation Types
1) Piles
Timber
Steel (H-piles, tubes, mandrels)
Reinforced Concrete
Cast-in-place concrete
Characteristics/Issues:
Displacement vs. Non-
displacement
Driving stresses
Vibration/Noise

## H-Pile Concrete Pile

Deep Foundation Types
2) Drilled Shafts
B = 2-30 ft (0.6-9 m)
L < 300 ft (91 m)

(Hayward
Baker)

Qb = end bearing

## If Qf >0.8Qb then friction pile

If Qb = 0 (design assumption)
then floating pile
Pile Groups
Foundation Design Philosophy
Limit State = condition beyond which a
component/member of a foundation or other structure
ceases to satisfy the provisions for which the
component/member was designed

## Strength Limit State (bearing capacity analysis)

Service Limit State (settlement analysis)
Extreme Event Limit State
Fatigue Limit State