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Sono-Technique

1. Bulldozer Technique
1. Right Lateral (Right Mid-Axillary)
2. Right Anterior (Right Mid-Clavicular)
3. Central
4. Left Anterior (Left Mid-Clavicular)
5. Left Lateral (Left Post-Axillary)

2. Butterfly Technique (at the site of pain)

At least 2 planes to be scanned Vertical, Axial or Oblique


I. Sono Windows
1.Right lateral
a. Right lung/diaphragm
b. Liver/Hepatorenal Space/Right Kidney
c. Right psoas/lumbar Vertebrae

2.Right anterior
a. Liver/portal vein/hepatic veins/gall bladder/bile duct
b. Ascending colon
c. Cecum ileum and appendix/iliac vessels/muscle and bone

3.Middle anterior
a. Left lobe/Antrum duodenum/Pancreas/Vessels/Vertebra
b. Small intestine and T.colon
c. Bladder and Genital organs


4.Left anterior
a. stomach/Spleen
b. Descending colon
c. Sigmoid colon/iliac vessels/iliac muscles and bone

5.Left lateral
a. Left Lung and diaphragm
b. Spleen/splenorenal Space/Left Kidney
c. Left Psoas and vertebrae
1. Sono Acute abdomen-
Inflammatory
Sono-acute Pathology
1. Inflammation
2. Obstruction
3. Disruption Probe tenderness

Edema

4. Vascular Increased vascularity

5. SOL
1.1.Inflammation: Anterolateral Abdominal Wall
1.2.Inflammation: Peritoneum
1.3.Inflammation: Gastrointestinal
1.3. Inflammation: Hepatobiliary
1.3. Inflammation: Hepatobiliary
2. Acute Abdomen- Obstructive
Sono-acute Pathology
1. Inflammation
2. Obstruction
1. Gastrointestinal
Proximal Distension
2. Hepatobiliary Distal Collapse

3. urogenital
3. Disruption
4. Vascular
5. SOL
2. Obstruction - Gastrointestinal
2. Obstruction- Hepatobiliary
2. Obstruction- Uro-genital
3. Acute Abdomen- Disruptive
Sono-acute Pathology 1. Hollow Organ

1. Gas
1. Inflammation
1. Loss of splanchnogram
2. Gut A lines
2. Obstruction 3. Gut point

2. Liquid
3. Disruption
3. Solid
1. Hollow Organ
2. Solid Organ 2. Solid Organ

3. Containing Wall 1. Tear


2. Intraparenchymal
4. Vascular
3. Subcapsular
4. Periorgan
5. SOL
5. Diffuse

3. Containing Wall
3.1. Hollow Organ Disruption: Gas under Diaphragm
3.1. Hollow Organ Disruption:
Appendicular Perforation
3.2. Solid Organ Disruption:
Intraparenchymal
3.2. Solid Organ Disruption: Peri-Organ/Distant
3.3. Containing Wall Disruption
4.Acute Abdomen-Vascular

Sono-acute Pathology
1. Inflammation 1. Aneurysmal

1. Distension
2. Obstruction 2. Rupture
3. Disruption 3. embolic
2. Ischemic
4. Vascular 1. Occlusion
1. Aneurysmal 2. Twisting
2. Ischemic 3. infarction

5. SOL
4. Vascular: Aneurysmal
4.Vascular: Ischemic
5. Acute Abdomen SOL
Sono-acute Pathology
1. Inflammation
2. Obstruction
3. Disruption Echogenicity

Echotexture

4. Vascular Edges

5. SOL
1. cystic/solid/mixed
2. benign/malignant
5. SOL: Benign
5.SOL: Malignant
ono Structures to be Identified

ono Features Of Acute


omen

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