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Operation and Control Technology of Power System

Operation and Control Technology of


Power System

Dr. XIA Shiwei


Email: s.w.xia@ncepu.edu.cn
Tel: 61773835
Outline
Purpose of the Course
The Content of the Course
Arrangement of the Course
Textbook & related materials
Purpose of the Course
The fundamental purpose of this course is to introduce
and explore a number of engineering and economic
matters involved in planning, operating, and controlling
power generation and transmission systems.
It is intended for first-year graduate students in electric
power engineering.
The topics included serve as an effective means to
introduce graduate students to advanced mathematical
and operation research methods applied to practical
electric power engineering problems.
Purpose of the Course
Acquaint the students how to economically operate a power
system and control it.
Introduce methods for solving complicated problems involving
both economic analysis and network analysis and illustrate
these techniques with relatively simple problems
Introduce the methods that are used in modern control systems
for power generationsAGC, SE, etc.
Introduce current topics: power system operation areas that
are undergoing significant, evolutionary changes around the
world.
Keep in phase with international electrical engineering.
Power System
Commercial use
Substation

Industry use
Steam
plant Turbine Generator Transformer Transmission lines
Distribution Transformer
Generation, Transmission and Distribution House use

Energy sources Transmission

Thermodynamics Distribution
Power plants End use
Thermal
Hydro
Nuclear
Energy Sources: Outline
Fossil fuels Nuclear power
Controlled nuclear
World Consumption of reaction
limited resources Nuclear power in China
Oil politics Nuclear issues
Safety
Environmental issues Waste disposal
Local air pollution Terrorist threat
Acid rain Renewable resources
Global warming Hydro
Solar
Wind
Basic Requirements
Meeting load demand
Balance generation and load
Load frequency control
Reliability
Faulted element should be detected and disconnected quickly
by protection system
One element (generator or line etc.) outage should not
impact system operation(n-1 principle)
Economic operation (efficiency)
Most economic combination of generation
How to Operate & Control Power System
How to Operate & Control Power System
Content of the Course

Text book:
Allen J. Wood, Bruce F. Wollenberg. Power Generation,
Operation and Control. 2nd edition, 2003

1. Power generation characteristics (Chap. 2)


Input-output characteristics of thermal units
Incremental heat rate characteristics
2. Economic dispatch (Chap. 3, 4)
Thermal unit economic dispatch problem
Economic dispatch problem considering transmission
system effects
Hydrothermal coordination
Generation with limited energy supply
Content of the Course (Cont.)

3. Unit Commitment (Chap. 5)


Priority-list Methods
Dynamic Programming Solution
Lagrange Relaxation Solution
4.Control of Generation (Chap. 9)
Tie-line Control
Generation Allocation
AGC
5. Interchange of Power and Energy (Chap. 10)
6.Power System Security (Chap. 11)
7. Optimal Power Flow (Chap. 13)
Arrangement of the Course

Teaching in the class


Discussion and Homework
Final exam or project
Final Score
30% Class Performance and Homework
70% Final Project or Exam
Useful Software
1. PSAT is a Matlab toolbox for electric power
system analysis and control. It includes power
flow, continuation power flow, optimal power
flow, small signal stability analysis and time
domain simulation. All operations can be
assessed by means of graphical user interfaces
(GUIs) and a Simulink-based library provides an
user friendly tool for network design. PSAT can
be downloaded at:
http://www.power.uwaterloo.ca
2. MATPOWER is a package of Matlab m-files for solving
power flow and optimal power flow problems. It is intended
as a simulation tool for researchers and educators which will
be easy to use and modify. The MATPOWER homepage can
Power Generation Operation and Control

Chapter 2
Characteristics of Power
Generation Unit
Dr. XIA Shiwei
s.w.xia@ncepu.edu.cn
Tel: 61773835
Content
Characteristics of Steam Units
Input-output characteristic
Incremental heat rate (cost) characteristic
Variations in Steam Unit Characteristics
Large steam units with multi-valves
Common-header plant
Gas turbines (combustion turbines)
Cogeneration Plants
Light-water moderated Nuclear Reactor Units
Hydroelectric Plants
Pumped-storage Station
2.1 Characteristics of steam units
1. Input-output characteristics

Boiler T G

--A nameless,
Input: Heat input: H (MBtu/h)
frictional
Or, Fuel cost: F(/h) =H(Fuel price) monetary unit

(Mbtu/h /Mbtu)
Output: P (in MW)

H=510.0+7.2P+0.00142P2 (Mbtu/h)
F=H x fuel-price=Hx1.1=561+7.92P+0.001562P2 (/h)
2.1 Characteristics of steam units

Output: Pnet (in MW)Net output, not gross output

PGross
Input: Pnet=Pgross-Pplant
Heat or Boiler T G
Fuel cost
Pplant 2~6% Pgross
(power plant use)
2.1 Characteristics of steam units
Input-Output Curve
<Input> H (MBtu/h)
F( /h)
This curve can be obtained from
design calculation or from heat rates
H
test
H,F
P F
smooth
<Output> Idealized
convex
Pnet(MW)
0 P
Pmin Pmax
Pmin : caused by fuel combustion stability and inherent steam
generator design constraints, 30% PR (for large steam units)
Pmax : Turbines do not have any inherent overload capability
1.05 P

H
(
P B
tF
u/K
W
h)
2.1 Characteristics of steam units
2. Incremental heat (cost) rate characteristics


i.e. slope of input-output char.
widely used in economic
dispatch (E.D.)
Note: units, MW<->Btu/kWh
(MW)
0 Pmin Pmax Pnet
dH
If H=A+BP+CP +DP 2 3
then B 2CP 3DP 2
dP
Piecewise linearization approximation: <to use linear
programming in economic dispatch>
2.1 Characteristics of steam units
3. Unit net heat (cost) rate characteristics
Unit heat rate curve, H/P(Btu/kWh)

H/P or F/P in Btu/kWh.


Is proportional to the reciprocal
of the efficiency char.
Typically the efficiency:
P(MW)
30~35%=>
Pmin Prated Pmax H
9800 ~ 11499 Btu/KWh
P
H A
the B 2CP 3DP
2
If H=A+BP+CP +DP 2 3
P P

H
F
PP
2.2 Variations in Steam Unit Characteristics

1. Large steam turbines is generally with multi-


valves which open in sequence.
Ex. --A unit with 4 valves

H,F

1 2 3 4

Pnet
0 A B C D Pnet
0 A B C D
The common-header steam plant
Have a number of different input-output char. that result
from different combinations of boilers and turbines.
Designed for providing both a large electrical output and
steam sendout for heating and cooling buildings.
Gas turbines/ Combustion turbines

Used to provide the aircraft-engine power for its high efficiency.


Two types used for generating electricity
Simple cycle: Gas or fuel oil is mixed with compressed air and
burned in a combustion chamber. High-temperature gaseous
products drives the turbine and generator. Exhaust gases are
discharged to the atmosphere.
Combined cycles: the exhaust gases are used to make steam in a
heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG) before being discharged.
See Page 16 Fig. 2.9: a combined cycle plant with four gas
turbines and a steam turbine generator; Fig. 2.10: Combined
cycle plant heat rate characteristic
2.3 Cogeneration Plants

Similar to the common-header steam plant which are


designed to produce both electricity and steam.
Steam for an industrial process, or heating building.
Modern cogeneration plants are designed around combined
cycles that may incorporate separately fired steam boilers.
Cycle designs can be complex and are tailored to the
industrial plants requirements for heat energy.
Higher efficiency than normal steam plants.
2.4 Nuclear power plants
Nuclear power plants
Light-water moderated nuclear reactor units
- Pressurized water reactor (PWRs)
- Boiling water reactors (BWRs)
2.5 Hydroelectric Units
Hydraulic power plants
The input is in terms of volume of water per unit time
Incremental water rate characteristics

Incremental water rate Q(acre-ft/kWh)


Input Q(acre-ft/h)

Output, P(MW) Output, P(MW)

Fig. 2.12 Hydroelectric unit input-


output curve Fig. 2.13 Incremental water rate curve
Pumped-storage plants
good for dispatch
This plants are designed so that water may be stored by
pumping it off peak against a net hydraulic head for
discharge at peak time.
Usually used as spinning-reserve.
Best generation dispatch (daily)

P(MW)

<gas- or peak
hydro- >
Average

<hydro- or
thermal- >

<nuclear- >
base t
(h)
0 4 8 12 16 20 24
Summary to Chap. 2
The characteristics of power generating units
- Input-output characteristics (curves)
- Incremental heat (water) rate characteristics (curves)
Steam plants
- Single boiler-turbine-generator unit
- Multi-valve unit
- Common-header unit
- Cogeneration
Gas turbine: simple cycle; combined cycles
Nuclear power plants
Pumped-storage electric plants
Hydroelectric plants
- Fixed water header
- Variable water header
- Reservoir in parallel