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Ririn Mariska
Putri Husna
Nurul Fadila
What Is The Digestive

The digestive system is a

group of organs (mouth,
pharynx, esophagus,
stomach, ileum colon,
rectum, and anus ). The
primary purpose of the
digestive system tract is
to break down of the food
into nutrients, which can
be absorbed into the body
to provide energy
What The Functions of
Digestive System ?
The functions of the
digestive system are:
Ingestion - eating food
Digestion - breakdown
of the food
Absorption - extraction
of nutrients from the food
Defecation - removal of
waste products
Anatomy & Physiology - Digestive Systems

Parts of the mouth and pharynx:

Teeth : for chewing (mastication)
Cheeks and tongue : to form the bolus (balling up food), tasting food
Pharynx : four-way crossing for air and food
Epiglotis : covers entrance to larynx during swallowing
Esophagus : propels bolus to stomach
Tonsils: lymphoid organs to expose immune system to various
microbes present in food

Saliva: moistens food, has Amylase that begins starch digestion in

mouth. Cleans mouth by digesting food particles. Salivary glands are:
a. Parotid :between skin and masseter muscle, near ear.
b. Submandibular :medial to mandible body.
c. Sublingual : anterior to submandibular, under tongue
3. Stomach
Food enters it from the esophagus via the
esophageal sphincter, a valve that stops back
flow of the stomach's contents. It leaves the
stomach through the pyloric sphincter into the
duodenum, the first part of the small intestine.
The wall of the stomach is a combination of layers
of muscle fiber with an inner mucous membrane.
The inner mucous membrane has lots of folds,
called rugae. When the stomach is full they
stretch out, enabling expansion, then they
contract when it empties.
Mechanical breakdown of food by churning and
mixing motions.
Chemical digestion of proteins by acids and
Stomach acid kills bugs and germs.
Some absorption of substances such as
Gastric juices contain:
- Hydrochloric acid: neutralizes bacteria and
activates pepsin.
4. The Small Intestine
The length of the small intestine of adults at
6.3 meters with a diameter of 2.5 cm. The
small intestine is divided into 3 parts

duodenum is located closest to the stomach.

Before entering the intestine 12 fingers, food
is going through the exit of the stomach

Jejenum, After food passes through the

intestine 12 finger food will be entered into
subsequent intestinal tract, which is also
called intestinal jejenum this part of the

Ileum is the final section rather than the

intestine. The walls are covered with villi in
the small intestine. Small intestine glands
produce digestive sap will digest the food into
the small intestine and filter sections can be
skipped villi and contain water. The part that is
absorbed through the intestinal villi in the
form of nutrients that get into the blood
vessels to subsequently circulated throughout
the body.
5. The large
Is the drain leftovers towards the
anus. The large intestine also has a
section called the large intestine
buntu.Usus jga as a place to
accommodate the rest of the food
that is not digested again. Colon
just as a way out and a place to
accommodate the next stool issued
by the anus.

Function :
The accumulation of unabsorbed
material to form faeces.
Some digestion by bacteria. The
bacteria are responsible for the
formation of intestinal gas.
Reabsorption of water, salts, sugar
and vitamins.
Other Organs Involved In The Digestion Process

The liver is the largest organ in the body
and vital organs located in the right side
of the abdominal cavity consists of two
major parts

Secretion of bile to the gall bladder
Carbohydrate, protein and fat
The storage of glycogen ready for
conversion into glucose when energy is
Storage of vitamins
Phagocytosis - ingestion of worn out red
and white blood cells, and some bacteria
The Gall Bladder
A pear-shaped sac attached by bile ducts to the back of the liver.
Whenever there is excess bile secreted by the liver which can't be
used immediately for digestion, it passes along the bile ducts to the
gall bladder where it will be stored until needed.
- Storage facility for bile (from liver)
- Secretes mucus to add to bile
- Absorbs water from bile, making it more concentrated
- Contracts to empty bile into duodenum.
Located in the back of the
abdominal cavity,
elongated shape and
produces pancreatic juices.

main function is to regulate
blood sugar levels. In the
hormone insulin in the
pancreas are functioning
convert blood sugar
(glucose) into glycogen.
The Problem Of The Digestive
Gastritis Diarrhea
An inflammation of the Loose stool, high
lining of the stomach mobility of GI tract.
which is characterized Signs and symptoms:
by nausea, loss of not urinating (peeing) as
appetite and often as usual
discomfort after eating.
fewer tears when crying
Sign and symtoms :
dry mouth
A feeling of fullness
sunken eyes
And pain in the
dark urine
stomach area
low energy
Hepatitis Peptic ulcer
inflammation of liver due to A peptic ulcer is a sore
infection, chemicals, or in the lining of your
drugs. stomach or your
Sign and symtoms : duodenum, the first part
extreme tiredness of your small intestine
flu-like symptoms of fever, Sign and symtoms :
headache, and weakness Burning pain
nausea and vomiting Nausea
abdominal discomfort Anorexia
pain in the area of theliver Weight loss
on the right side beneath
the lower ribs
poor appetite
dark urine
muscle pain
Constipation Hemorrhoids
Constipation is the haemorrhoids are
infrequent or uncomfortable vascular structures in the
bowel movements, causing anal canal which help
hard feces to block the with stool control
rectum itching around the anus
Symptoms of constipation or rectal area.
can include: pain around the anus.
Infrequent bowel lumps near or around the
movements and/or anus.
difficulty having bowel
blood in the stool.
Swollen abdomen or
abdominal pain.