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5th Edition

PPT 8-1
Chapter 8

Site Location

PPT 8-2
Levy/Weitz: Retailing Management, 5/e Copyright 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights
Retailing Strategy

Retail Market and Human Resource

Financial Strategy Management
Chapter 5, 6 Chapter 9

Retail Locations
Chapter 7
Site Locations
Chapter 8

Information and Customer

Distribution Relationship
Systems Management
Chapter 10 Chapter 11
PPT 8-3
Location Chapters

Chapter 7
General Description of the Location Types
Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Location
Appendix Terms and Condition Involved in Leasing

Chapter 8
Considerations in Selecting Area for Locating Store
Issues in Evaluating Specific Sites

PPT 8-4
Three Levels of Analysis

PPT 8-5
Trade Area Issues

Which Trade Areas Are Most Attractive for

Locating Retail Outlets?
How Many Outlets to Locate in a Trade Area?
More Stores Increases Economies of Scale and
Reduces Costs
More Stores also Results in More Cannibalization
and Less Sales per Store

PPT 8-6
Factors Affecting Demand
for a Region or Trade Area

PPT 8-7
Factors Affecting the
Attractiveness of a Site

How Attractive Is the Site to the Retailers Target

Match Between Trade Area Demographics and
Retailers Target Market
Likelihood of Customers Coming to Location
Other Attractive Retailers At Location
Principle of cumulative attraction - a cluster of similar
and complementary retailing activities will have greater
drawing power.

PPT 8-8
Convenience of Going to Site

Road pattern and condition

Natural and artificial barriers

Traffic flow

PPT 8-9
Location Within a Center

In High Traffic Areas

Near Anchor
Center of Shopping Area
Near Stores Selling Complementary
Clustering Specialty Stores Appealing to
Better locations cost more
PPT 8-10
Map of Dallas North Park Center

PPT 8-11
Estimating Demand for a New Location

Definition of the Trade Area

Primary, Secondary, Tertiary Zones

Approaches for Estimating Demand

Analog Approach
Regression Approach
Huff Gravity Model

PPT 8-12
Trade Area

Primary zone - 60 to 65 percent of its customers

Secondary zone - 20 percent of a stores sales
Tertiary zone - customers who occasionally shop
at the store or shopping center

PPT 8-13
Factors Defining Trade Areas

Natural & Physical Barriers
Type of Shopping Area
Type of Store
Parasite Stores

PPT 8-14
Oblong Trade Area Caused by
Major Highways and Natural Boundaries

PPT 8-15
Sources of Information

Customer Spotting
Census Data
Geodemographic Information
Information on Competition
Yellow Pages

PPT 8-16
Customer Spotting

Purpose: to spot, or locate, the residences of

customers for a store or shopping center.

How to obtain data:

credit card or checks
customer loyalty programs
manually as part of the checkout process
automobile license plates

PPT 8-17
Census Data of the U.S.

Only once in 10 years.

Each household in the country is
counted to determine the number
of persons per household,
household relationships, sex, race
age and marital status.

PPT 8-18
Geodemographic Information Systems

Demographic data vendors specialize in

repackaging and updating census-type data.
Geographic Information System (GIS) is a
computer system that enables analysts to
visualize information about their customers
demographics, buying behavior, and other data in
a map format.
GIS is a spatial database that stores the location and
shape of information.
Analysts can identify the boundaries of a trade area
and isolate target customer groups

PPT 8-19
Indices for Assessing Sales Potential

Market Potential Index (MPI)

Number of Households Purchasing a Product or
Service in a Trade Area

Spending Potential Index (SPI)

Average Amount Spent on a Product or Service by a
Household in a Trade Area

PPT 8-20
Sources for Measuring Competition

The Internet - lists current locations and future

Yellow Pages
Other Sources: Directories published by trade
associations, chambers of commerce, Chain
Store Guide, International Council of Shopping
Centers, Urban Land Institute, local newspaper
advertising departments, municipal and county
governments, specialized trade magazines, list
PPT 8-21
Measuring Competition

Calculate total square footage of retail space

devoted to a type of store per household

Higher ratios will indicate higher levels of


PPT 8-22
Competitive Analysis for
Edward Breiner

PPT 8-23
Methods for Estimating Demand

Analog Approach

Multiple Regression Analysis

Huffs Model

PPT 8-24
The Analog Approach

3 Steps:

1. Current trade area is determined by using the

customer spotting technique.

2. Based on the density of customers from the store, the

primary, secondary and tertiary trade area zones are

3. Match the characteristics of our current store with the

potential new stores locations to determine the best

PPT 8-25
Income Distribution of Three-Mile
Ring Surrounding Edward Breiner Optical

PPT 8-26
Demographic Trends for Three-Mile
Ring Surrounding Edward Breiner Optical

PPT 8-27
Breiner Optical

ACORN Neighborhood Lifestyle Clusters

for Three-Mile Ring

PPT 8-28
Descriptions of Largest PRIZM
Clusters Surrounding Edward Breiner Optical

PPT 8-29
Description of Largest PRIZM
Clusters Surrounding Edward Breiner Optical

PPT 8-30
Description of Largest PRIZM
Clusters Surrounding Edward Breiner Optical

PPT 8-31
Description of Largest PRIZM
Clusters Surrounding Edward Breiner Optical

PPT 8-32
Descriptions of Edward Breiner Optical
and Four Potential Locations Trade Areas

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Multiple Regression Analysis

Need to define the retail trade area potential

for retail chains with greater than 20 stores.
Similar to the analog approach, it uses
statistics rather than judgement to predict
sales for a new store.

PPT 8-34
Multiple Regression Steps
Current trade areas are determined by using
the customer spotting technique
Primary, secondary, and tertiary zones are
determined by plotting customers on a map
Select appropriate measures of
performance, such as per capita sales or
market share.
Select a set of variables that may be useful
in predicting performance.
Solve the regression equation and use it to
project performance for future sites.
PPT 8-35
Yearly Sales, Population, and
Income for 10 Home Improvement Centers

PPT 8-36
Regression of Population on Sales

PPT 8-37
Illustration of Regression Approach

1. Specify Regression Model Identify Critical Predictors

of Store Sales
Sales = B0 + B1 x X1 + B2 x X2
X1 = population in trade area
X2 = average household income in trade area

2. Estimate Weights - B0,B1, B2

3. Use Estimated Weights to Forecast sales
Sales = -144,146 + 6,937 x X1 + 10,132 x X2
Sales = -144,146 + 6,937 x 55,000 + 10,132 x 28,000 = $521,085

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Huffs Gravity Model

Based on the premise that the probability that a

given customer will shop in a particular store
or shopping center becomes larger as the size
of store or center grows and distance or
travel time from customer shrinks

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Huffs Model Formula

S j Tij b
Pij n
S j Tij b
j 1
Pij Probability of a customer at a given point of origin i traveling to a
particular shopping center j
S j Size of shopping center j

Tij Travel time or distance from customer's starting point to shopping

b An exponent to Tij that reflects the effect of travel time on different
kinds of shopping trips

PPT 8-40
University and Shopping Centers:
Gravity Model Illustration

PPT 8-41
Huffs Model: The Solution

Pij = 1000 32
(1000 32) + (500 52) + (100 12)

Probability = .48

.48 x 12,000 students = 5,760 customers

5,760 customers x $150 = $864,000

Repeat steps 1 to 3 for the remaining areas

and then sum them.

PPT 8-42