Sunteți pe pagina 1din 30

Matakuliah : S0182/Studi Kasus Dalam Teknik Sipil

Tahun : Juli 2005


Versi : 01/01

Pertemuan 09
BANGUNAN AIR

1
Learning Outcomes

Mahasiswa dapat memperhitungkan


berbagai kemungkinan dan memilih
alternatif yang terbaik bagi penyelesaian
masalah. C3, C4

2
Outline Materi

Kasus yang selalu dijumpai di proyek


Kasus yang mungkin terjadi dengan
kondisi khusus
Analisa pemecahan masalah

3
Type of DAM

Arch Dams
An arch dam is a curved
dam which is dependent
upon arch action for its
strength.
Arch dam are thinner and
therefore require less
material than any other type
of dam.
Arch dams are good for
sites that are narrow and
have strong abutments.

4
Arch Dams - Anatomy

5
Arch Dams - History

It is rather astonishing that the


Romans only sparcely applied the
arch in dam constructions, a design
otherwise so masterfully employed in
their buildings and bridges. One of the
few true arch dams built by the
Romans was located in the Vallon de
Baume, France in order to supply the
nearby city with water. The dam was
12 m high and 18 m long.

6
Arch Dams - History
Kebar and Kurit
The Mongolians built the first arch dams
since the Romans. The earliest one was
built around 1300 near Kebar, Iran. The
Kebar dam was 26 m high, 55 m long. The
arch did not abut against the canyon walls,
instead it passed on both sides into
straight wing walls.
The second Mongolian arch dam was built
around 1350 in Kurit, Iran. The Kurit dam
is especially remarkable for its
extraordinary height of 60 m -- it was the
world's highest dam until the early 1900's.
The dam was built in a very narrow canyon
and its crest length reached only 44% of
the height. It therefore remained erect,
despite the fact that a large segment of
lower half of the vertical downstream face
broke away.
7
Arch Dams - History

Postmedieval Europe
Elche
The first true arch dam in Europe
since the Roman times was built from
1632 to 1640 near Elche, Spain. The
Elche dam's main arch was 75 m long
at the crest. The Elche dam was
designed by Joanes del Temple.

8
9
Type of DAM

Buttress Dams

Buttress dams are dams in


which the face is held up by a
series of supports.
Buttress dams can take many
forms -- the face may be flat or
curved.
Explore the links below to learn
more about buttress dams.

10
Buttress Dams - Anatomy

11
Buttress Dams - History

Roman Buttress Dams


Esparragelejo
Whenever Roman engineers, often erroneously, judged the stability of a dam
wall to be inefficient, they backed it up by irregularly spaced buttresses. But
some dams were too thin. Buttress could not prevent the failure of the super
thin, 0.9 m dam wall at Ituranduz. By contrast, some dams were over
designed. The Olisipo dam was 6.5 m thick and didn't need help from its
buttresses. The most remarkable of the Roman buttress dams is the one
near the village of Esparragalejo. The 5.6 m high and 320 m long dam was
supported in its central part with 12 buttresses averaging 1.2 m wide, 3.2 m
thick and spaced 8.6 m apart. However, the novel feature was that the
downstream face of the 2 m wide dam wall became curved between the
buttresses. Thus, the first multiple arch dam was born!

12
Buttress Dams - History
Roman Buttress Dams
Esparragelejo

13
Buttress Dams - History

Buttress Dams in Postmedieval


Europe
Castellar
The Castellar storage dam in
Spain was built around 1500 and
had three water wheels to power
its mill house. The sturdy end and
walls of the mill house were
actually buttresses ensuring the
dam's stability. It is certainly no
coincidence that this structural
concept re-emerged in a region in
which the Romans had built many
buttress dams.

14
Buttress Dams - History

Evolution of the Modern Buttress Dam


Today we understand buttress dams as derivations from the
massive gravity type with the introduction of intermediate
spaces. These spaces allows the discharge of water seeping
through the dam and its foundation, thus greatly reducing
uplift pressures. Given the absence of uplift, more substantial
savings were possible by inclining the upstream face, thereby
mobilizing the vertical water load on the upstream face for
sliding stability.

15
Buttress Dams - History
Evolution of the Modern
Buttress Dam

16
Type of DAM

Gravity Dams
Gravity dams are dams which
resist the horizontal thrust of the
water entirely by their own
weight.
Concrete gravity dams are
typically used to block streams
through narrow gorges.
Because it is there weight holding
the water back, concrete gravity
dams tend to use a large amount
of concrete. This can be
expensive.
But many prefer its solid strength
to arch or buttress dams.
Explore the links below to learn
more about gravity dams
17
Gravity Dams - Anatomy

18
Gravity Dams - History
The Roman Empire
Emperor Nero (AD 54-68) had a 40 m high, 13.5 m wide, and 80 m
lonldam built for a pleasure lake near his villa at Subiaco, Italy. The
dam was one of the earliest Roman dams and remained the highest
the Romans ever built. Moreover, the Subiaco dam and two smaller
dams nearby are the only Roman dams in Italy. Although the dam
was to thin, it remained intact until it failed in 1305. Records blace
the blame on two monks who took it upon themselves to remove
stones from the dam, apparently in an attempt to lower the level of
the lake which was flooding their fields.

19
Gravity Dams - History

20
Gravity Dams - History

Evolution of the Modern Gravity Dam


The Correct Shape
In 1765 and 1800, the first triangular gravity dams were built in
Mexico. Unfortunately, it remains unknown who their ingenious
builder was. Amazingly, he/she had adopted the modern shape
almost one century before it was developed in France. In 1850,
French engineer J. Augustin Tortene de Sazilly (1812-1852) showed
in a lecture that the most advantagous profile for a gravity dam is
triagle with a verticle upsteam face. Sazilly also analyzed three
recent French navigation dams in a paper published posthumously
in 1853. He used the cross sections of these three dams to illustrate
the confusion and uncertainty in the design of gravity dams. In fact,
two of the dams were wrongly inclined on the upstream side!

21
Gravity Dams - History

22
Gravity Dams - History

23
Gravity Dams - History

Latest Ideas in Gravity Dams


Steel
A relatively new development in the construction of gravity dams is
incorporation of post-tensioned steel into the structure. This helped
reduce the cross section of Allt Na Lairige Dam in Scotland to only
60 percent of that of a conventional gravity dam of the same height.
A series of vertical steel rods near the upstream water face,
stressed by jacks and securely anchored into the rock foundation,
resists the overturning tendency of this more slender section. This
system has also been used to raise existing gravity dams to a
higher crest level, economically increasing the storage capacity of a
reservoir. However, since reaching their prime in the 1960s, gravity
dams have become something like a dying species, the dinosaurs of
an era which especially the idustrialized countries with their high
labor cost no longer can afford.
24
Type of DAM

Embankment Dams
Embankment dams are
massive dams made of earth
or rock.
They rely on their weight to
resist the flow of water.
Explore the links below to learn
more about embankment
dams.

25
Embankment Dams - Anatomy

26
Embankment Dams - History

Ancient Times
Sadd-el-Kafara
The ruins of the Sadd-el-
Kafara embankment dam
were discovered over 100
years ago in the Garawi
ravine in Egypt. The dam
was built around 2600 BC
and was 14 m high and 113
m along the crest. It is the
oldest dam of such size
known in the world. The of
the dam was to retain the
water from rare, but violent,
floods.

27
Embankment Dams - History

The Postmedieval Europe


Saint Ferreol
The proposal of a large water supply reservoir turned out to be the key to
build the Languedoc canal in France, which connected the Mediterranian
Sea with the Atlantic Ocean. The reservoir would be used to conpensate the
losses of water in the canal during the dry season. After the approval by King
Louis XIV, the designs for the canal and dam were drawn up in 1662. The
construction of the Saint Ferreol dam began in 1666 and was completed in
1675.
The dam consisted of a water retaining wall supported by a downstream
embankment. In case of a too rapid depletion of the reservoir, the water
retaining wall was stabilized by a lower embankment built against the
upstream face. The result may be regarded as an earthen dam with a
masonry core. With its height of 36 m, the Saint Ferreol dam remained the
heightest embankment in the world for 165 years!

28
Embankment Dams - History

The Postmedieval Europe

29
Embankment Dams - History
Evolution of Modern Embankment Dams
Embankment dams in the U.S. prior to 1930 had a poor track record. Of
those over 490 ft high, almost 10% failed, usually due to overtopping in a
flood. Overtopping is when the water level in the reservoir reaches
maximum height and begins to flow over the top of the dam. The South
Fork dam in Johnstown,PA was one of the first to use rockfills, or loose
rocks, on the downstream face. This dam failed after being overtopped in
1889, kill over 2000 people.

30