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## Amey Patil (BT11EEE05)

Amey Khot (BT11EEE06)
Charudatt Awaghate (BT11EEE18)
Srikant Pillai (BT11EEE51)
Purushotam Kumar (BT11EEE53)

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The space vector PWM (SVM) method is an
and is possibly the best method among the all
PWM techniques for variable-frequency drive
application. Because of its superior performance
characteristics, it has been finding wide spread
application in recent years.
There are various variations of SVM that result in
different quality and computational requirements.
One major benefit is in the reduction of total
harmonic distortion (THD) created by the rapid
switching inherent to this PWM algorithm.

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PWM Voltage Source Inverter

## PWM single phase

Vdc
dc

vc vPulse
tri width
vc modulator
qq

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PWM Voltage Source Inverter

## PWM extended to 3-phase Sinusoidal PWM

V a* Pulse width
modulator

Vb * Pulse width
modulator

Vc * Pulse width
modulator

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Simple 3 phase Inverter
Output voltages of three-phase inverter

Fig1
where, upper transistors: S1, S3, S5
lower transistors: S4, S6, S2
switching variable vector: a, b, c

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Treats the sinusoidal voltage as a constant
amplitude vector rotating at constant frequency.
Coordinate Transformation ( abc reference frame to
the stationary d-q frame)
A three-phase voltage vector is transformed into a vector in the
stationary d-q coordinate frame which represents the spatial vector
sum of the three-phase voltage.
This PWM technique approximates the reference
voltage Vref by a combination of the eight switching
patterns (V0 to V7)

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The vectors (V1 to V6) divide the plane into six sectors
(each sector: 60 degrees).
Vref is generated by two adjacent non-zero vectors
and two zero vectors.
S1 S3 S5

+ va -
Vdc a + vb -
b + vc -
n
S4 S6 cS2
van = vaN + vNn

## N vbn = vbN + vNn

From the definition of space vector:
vcn = vcN + vNn
2

v v a ( t ) av b ( t ) a 2 v c ( t )
3

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Lets consider 3-phase sinusoidal voltage:

va(t) = Vmsin(t)

## vc(t) = Vmsin(t + 120o)

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Vd = Van + Vbn.cos120 + Vcn.cos
= Van 1/2Vbn 1/2Vcn
Vq = 0 + Vbn.cos30 - Vcn.cos150
= 3/2Vbn -3/2Vcn

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The circuit model of a typical three-phase voltage
source PWM inverter is shown in Fig.2
S1 to S6 are the six power switches that shape
the output, which are controlled by the switching
variables a, a, b, b, c and c.
When an upper transistor is switched on, i.e.,
when a, b or c is 1, the corresponding lower
transistor is switched off, i.e., the corresponding a
, b or c is 0.
Therefore, the on and off states of the upper
transistors S1, S3 and S5 can be used to
determine the output voltage.

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Space Vector Modulation
Fig:2

S1 S3 S5

+ va -
Vdc a + vb -
b + vc -
n
c
S4 S6 S2

## N We want va, vb and vc to follow

va* v*a, v*b and v*c
vb* S1, S2, .S6
vc*

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Space Vector Modulation

Sector 2
 V3  V2
(1/3)Vdc
Sector 3 Sector 1

 V1
 V4
(2/3)Vdc

v Vdc S a aS b a 2 S c
Sector 4 2 Sector 6

##  V5 Sector 5  V6

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Three phase quantities vary sinusoidally with time (frequency f)
space vector rotates at 2f, magnitude Vm

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Step -1 Determine Vd, Vq, Vref, and
angle(alpha)
Step -2 Determine time duration T1, T2, T0
Step -3 Determine the switching time of
each transistor (S1 to S6)

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19
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T0=T7=0.5Tz
Both zero states are
used for equal
duration

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Space Vector Modulation

zero vectors

## If T is sampling period, 110

V1 is applied for T1, V2

## Zero voltage is applied for the

rest of the sampling period,
T2
V2
T0 = T T1 T2 T
Where, 100
T1 = Ts.|Vc|. Sin (/3 - ) T1 V1
T2 = Ts.|Vc|. Sin ()
V1
T
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Space Vector Modulation

## Within sampling period, vref is synthesized using adjacent vectors and

zero vectors
T0/2 T1 T2 T0/2

V0 V1 V2 V7
If T is sampling period,
V1 is applied for T1, va
V2 is applied for T2
vb
Zero voltage is applied for the
rest of the sampling period, vc
T0 = T T1 T2
T T
Vref is sampled Vref is sampled

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Space Vector Modulation

## They are calculated based on volt-second integral of vref

1 T 1 To T1 T2 T7

T 0
v ref dt
T 0 0 0
v 0 dt v 1dt v 2 dt v 7 dt
0

v ref T v o To v 1 T1 v 2 T2 v 7 T7

2 2
v ref T To 0 Vd T1 Vd (cos 60o j sin 60o )T2 T7 0
3 3
2 2
v ref T Vd T1 Vd (cos 60o j sin 60o )T2
3 3
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Space Vector Modulation

q T T1 T2 T0,7

Sector 1

## v ref v ref cos j sin

100
2 2 V1o d
v ref T Vd T1 Vd (cos 60o j sin 60 )T2
3 3
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Space Vector Modulation

2 2
v ref T Vd T1 Vd (cos 60o j sin 60o )T2
3 3
2 1 1
T v ref cos Vd T1 Vd T2 T v ref sin Vd T2
3 3 3

## Solving for T1, T2 and T0,7 gives:

T1= 3/2 m[ (T/3) cos - (1/3)T sin ]

T2= mT sin
where,
M= Vref/ (Vd/ 3)

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Basic switching vectors and Sectors

## 6 active vectors (V1,V2, V3, V4, V5, V6)

Axes of a hexagonal
Each sector (1 to 6): 60 degrees

## 2 zero vectors (V0, V7)

At origin
No voltage is supplied to the load

## Fig. Basic switching vectors and sectors.

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S1 through S6 are the six power transistors that
shape the output voltage. When an upper switch
is turned on (i.e., a, b or c is 1), the
corresponding lower switch is turned off (i.e., a',
b' or c' is 0).Eight possible combinations of on
and off patterns for the three upper transistors
(S1, S3, S5) are possible.

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The eight inverter voltage vectors (V0 to V7)

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The eight combinations, phase voltages and output
line to line voltages

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Comparison of Sine PWM and Space Vector PWM

## Fig. Locus comparison of maximum linear control voltage

in Sine PWM and SV PWM.

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Comparison of Sine PWM and Space Vector PWM

a
o b
c

vao

Vdc/2
For m = 1, amplitude of
fundamental for vao is Vdc/2

amplitude of line-line = 3
Vdc
2

-Vdc/2

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Comparison of Sine PWM and Space Vector PWM

## Space Vector PWM generates less harmonic distortion

in the output voltage or currents in comparison with sine PWM

## Space Vector PWM provides more efficient use of supply voltage

in comparison with sine PWM

Sine PWM
: Locus of the reference vector is the inside of a circle with radius of 1/2 V dc

## Space Vector PWM

: Locus of the reference vector is the inside of a circle with radius of 1/3 Vdc

## Voltage Utilization: Space Vector PWM = 2/3 or (1.1547) times

of Sine PWM, i.e. 15.47% more utilization of voltage.

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Space Vector Modulation

## Comparison between SVM and SPWM

SVM
1
We know max possible phase voltage without overmodulation is Vdc
3

## amplitude of line-line = Vdc

3
Vdc Vdc
2 15.47%
Line-line voltage increased by: x100
3
Vdc
2

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From the simulation results and FFT analysis it is
shown that SVPWM generates less harmonics
and high output voltage for the modulation
index given same for both SPWM and SVPWM
techniques.
Compared to SPWM the Total harmonic distortion
(THD) and lower order harmonics (LOH) contents
are decreased in SVPWM. It is known that the
maximum value of the peak-phase voltage that
can be obtained from a 3-Ph inverter with
Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM)
technique is equal to Vdc/2. It is therefore
evident that SVPWM achieves a better DC bus
utilization compared to SPWM (by about 15.4%).

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SVM offers better harmonic spectrum. Thus
this scheme is better than sine-triangle
PWM scheme.
Space vector pulse width modulation is new

## and the best technique which is ruling the

world now.
Still a lot of research is going on this

svpwm.
It should be available with low cost for

household purpose.

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1. Hind Djeghloud and Hocine Benalla, Space Vector Pulse Width
Modulation Applied to The Three-Level Voltage Inverter, 5th International
Conference on Technology and Automation ICTA05, Thessaloniki, Greece,
Oct 2010.
. Jin-woo Jung, Space Vector PWM Inverter, The Ohio State University,
February, 2008.
. Jae Hyeong Seo; Chang Ho Choi; Dong Seok Hyun, A New Simplified
space-Vector PWM Method for Three-Level Inverters, IEEE Transactions on
Power Electronics, Volume 16, Issue 4, Jul 2010, Pages 545 - 550
. Muhammad H.Rashid Power Electronics Circuits, devices, and
Applications, Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, Third Edition, 2004.
. the adaptive space vector pwm for four switch three phase inverter fed
induction motor with dc link voltage imbalance by Hong Hee Lee*, Phan
Quoc Dzung**, Le Dinh Khoa**, Le Minh Phuong**, Huynh Tan
Thanh***School of Electrical Engineering, University of Ulsan Ulsan, Korea.
. P.S.Bimbhra, Power Electronics, Khanna publications.