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MATRICES

Dr. Jolene Sequeira


Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics
MMMC, Manipal
Flowchart

Definition
Classification
Function
Parts
Requirements of Matrix
Matrix systems for individual cavity preparations
INTRODUCTION

When direct restorative materials are inserted into prepared


cavities, they are still subject to plastic deformation ie pliable

In areas where there is not enough tooth support, temporary


wall(s) has to be created to support the material till its initial set.

Establish anatomic contour, proximal contacts; prevent gingival


overhangs
MATRICING

It is derived from the Latin word Mater i.e. mother.

The first successful matrix was introduced in to dentistry by Dr. Louis Jack in 1871.
A dental matrix may be defined as a piece of properly
shaped material which forms the missing wall of the
restoration which gives form and shape to the restoration
during insertion and condensation of restorative material.

Matricing- Procedure by which a temporary wall is


created opposite to the axial wall surrounding areas of
the tooth structure that were lost during cavity
preparation
PARTS OF A MATRIX

Band

A piece of a metal or polymeric material used to support


and give form to the restorative materials during its
insertion and hardening.
Stainless steel, cellulose acetate(cellophane), cellulose
nitrate (celluloid) and polyacetate (mylar)
Available as strips of different thickness 0.001-0.002 inch,
Widths: 3/16th inch, 1/4th inch, 5/16th inch
Matrix retainer

A device by which band can be retained in its designated


position and shape.
The retainer could be a mechanical device, a wire, dental
floss or an impression compound
FUNCTION AND OBJECTIVES

1. Replaces the missing wall


2. Forms point of contact with adjacent tooth
3. Permits adequate condensation, prevents cervical overhang
of restoration.
4. Possess exact three dimensional contour of future
restoration.
5. Displace gingiva and rubber dam away from cavity margins
during insertion of restorative material.
6. Maintains shape during hardening of material.
7. Confirms restorative materials within cavity preparation and
predetermined surface configuration.
SPECIFICATIONS OF A MATRIX

Ideal requirement
Ease of application.
Not to be cumbersome.
Removability.
Rigidity .
Versatility.
Height.
Proximal contours

PositionIt should always be 1 mm below the gingival seat


and 1 mm above the marginal. ridge.

Thickness - 0.002 or 0.0015 inch


SPECIFICATIONS OF A
MATRIX
Ideal Requirements Position of the matrix
It should always be 1 mm
below the gingival seat and
Ease of application. 1 mm above the marginal
ridge.
Not to be cumbersome.
Removability.
Rigidity . Thickness of matrix
Versatility. band
Height.

0.002 or 0.0015 inch
thickness
Proximal contours
CLASSIFICATION

Based on anatomic contour


Anatomic matrix
Non anatomic matrix

Based on material used


Metal Stainless steel
Copper - copper band
Polyacetate mylar strip
Celluloid

Based on the support


Compound supported - eg anatomic matrices
Non compound supported - Eg Ivory no 1, no 8; tofflemire matrix
Based on the dentition
Deciduous
Permanent

Based on the mode of retention


With retainer - Tofflemire, Ivory no. 1, Ivory no. 8 matrices
Without retainer - Automatrix

Based on shape or design


Straight
Contra angled

Based on the position


Circumferential
Unilateral
Depending on the cavity preparation for which it
is used

1.Class I cavity with buccal or lingual extension

2.Class II cavity single


banded tofflemire, Ivory no 1,8;
compound supported, copper band, T-band, precountoured
sectional, automatrix

3.Class III cavity S shaped, cellophane, mylar strips

4.Class IV celluloid strips, transparent celluloid crown forms,


dead soft metal matrix strips

5.Class V cavities Window matrix, tin foil matrix, preformed


transparent cervical matrix
Ivory matrix No. 1
Matrix:
Stainless steel band

Encircles one proximal

surface of a posterior tooth


Attached to retainer at the

wedge shaped projection


Retainer
Metal

Grips matrix at wedge shaped projection

Adjusting screw adapts band to tooth As screw tightened, wedge

projections engage tooth at unprepared proximal embrasures


Indications
Unilateral class II cavity preparation
Ivory matrix No. 8

The band encircles the entire crown of the tooth

Circumference adjusted by adjusting screw

Matrix held in place by tightening screw

Indicated for bilateral Class II cavities.


TOFFLEMIRE MATRIX

Designed by B.R Tofflemire

2 sizes Standard (permanent dentition), Small (deciduous dentition)


Parts head Locking
nut

Slots Retaining
screw Adjustin
vise g nut

Head accomodates matrix band. Ushaped with 2 slots.


Open side held in gingival direction. Inserted, positioned
around tooth. Head may be straight or angulated
a) 2 types of retainers- Straight tofflemire retainer
b) Contra-angled tofflemire retainer can be placed
from buccal or lingual side
Locking vise has a diagonal slot near head for band
placement into retainer.

Pointed Spindle adjust size of loop of matrix to fit around


tooth by altering distance between head and locking vise

Large knurled nut / adjusting nut rotate clockwise or


anticlockwise to adjust loop size

Small knurled nut / locking nut to secure band in retainer


by rotating clockwise or anticlockwise
head Locking
nut

Slots Retaining
screw Adjustin
vise g nut
BASIC STEPS

Turn the large knurled nut until locking vise is inch from
head of the retainer
Small knurled nut turned counterclockwise until the screws
pointed end is clear of the locking vice
Make a loop of occlusal tooth diameter with matrix band by
bringing ends together.

Insert the looped matrix band into the correct slot of locking
vise and rotate small knurled nut to fix band in retainer
Position band and retainer around the tooth by passing
through contact areas.
Adjust the loop to perfectly encircle the tooth by rotating the
large knurled nut, making it secure

Check contour with mirror. Burnisher can be used from within


the cavity preparation to adapt band along adjacent tooth.

Ideally, the retainer should be parallel and adjacent to the


facial surfaces of the quadrants of teeth being operated on.

Wedge can be placed


Removal

Small knurled nut turned counterclockwise (release spindle


from band)

Large knurled nut turned counter clockwise to release band


from retainer

Retainer freed from band and gently removed

Band gently disengaged my gently moving in bucco-occlusal


direction
Advantages

Rigid, stable, ease of use, produces good contacts and


contours

Disadvantages

- straight line contacts which place contact surface incorrectly


near the marginal ridge.

- unnatural proximal contour leads to an abnormal embrasure


space which contributes to food accumulation on buccal and
lingual aspect of tooth.

Indications
Class I cavities with buccal or lingual extensions
Class II unilateral or bilateral cavities
WINDOW MATRIX

Modification of tofflemire

Indicated for Class V cavities

Retainer placed against lingual side, window cut in cavity


area of band that is slightly smaller than dimensions of
cavity, band stabilised with wedges, amalgam condensed
and contoured.
Matrix can be easily removed.
ANATOMICAL MATRIX

Most efficient means of reproducing contact and contour.

Custom made and contoured specifically for each


individual case.

Especially useful in mutilated teeth.


Procedure

A piece of 0.002 inch stainless


steel matrix band 5/16th inch width Contoured with contouring pliers
is withdrawn between the handle or egg shaped burnisher.
of a pair of tweezers.
Band trimmed to extend well below the
gingival margin of the cavity and is
wrapped around 1/3rd of facial and lingual
surface beyond proximal surface to be
restored
Wedge forced into position -> gingival
adaptation. Two small cones of impression
compound applied into buccal and lingual
embrasure. Warm burnisher from inside
cavity again
Removal
After initial hardening, compound is cracked using chisel or knife.
Wedges removed using hemostat.
Band curled backwards against adjacent tooth and withdrawn
bucco-lingually with pressure against the adjacent proximal
surface

Advantages:
Rigid, stable, good access and visibility, good contact and
contour

Disadvantages: time consuming

Indications:
Class II unilateral or bilateral cavities, complex pin amalgam
restorations
BLACKS MATRICES
Early custom made matrice.
Consist of thin strip of stainless steel metal placed on the
proximal surface and then tied around the tooth with
dental floss or ligature.

Hollenback modified Blacks matrix by supporting it with


low fusing modeling compound before inserting the
amalgam.

Sweeney further modified the technique by placing a


wedge interproximally at the gingival margin.
BLACKS MATRIX FOR SIMPLE CASES

Recommended for the majority of small


and medium size cavities.

Procedure
Cut a metallic band to extend slightly
over buccal and lingual surfaces of
the tooth beyond extremities of cavity
preparation.

Corners of the gingival ends are turned


up to hold the ligature.
Blacks matrix with a gingival extension

To cover the gingival


margin of a subgingival
cavity.

An extension is created in
the occluso -gingival
cavity.
SOLDERED BAND OR SEAMLESS
COPPER BAND

Cylindrical in shape, selected according to tooth diameter.


Shaped with contouring pliers, festooned cervically with curved
scissors to fit tooths gingival contour.
Removed with sectioning at next appointment
Indicated for badly broken down teeth receiving pin retained
amalgam restorations with large buccal and lingual
extensions.
ROLL IN BAND MATRIX OR AUTO
MATRIX
Four sizes available: Narrow regular, Wider
regular, Medium thin, Medium regular.

Band is self retained by holding one end of the


band and rolling the other end over itself,
decreasing the band length and matrix
diameter until it fits tightly over the tooth and
preparation.

Ratchet is used to cinch the band


securely to the tooth.

Wedging not usually required.

Removed in angular direction


T-SHAPED MATRIX BAND

Premade T-shaped brass or stainless steel matrix bands.

Long arm curled circumferentially to overlap the horizontal


arm of T

Section is then bent over the long arm

Wedges and stabilizing compound can be applied to add


further stability
S-SHAPED MATRIX

Ideal matrix for class III with either labial or


lingual access.

Mainly used for cavity preparation on the


distal of the cuspid.

Mirror handle used to produce S-shaped


strip.

Band contoured with contouring pliers.

Placed interproximally and wedged &


covered with compound
TOOTH COLORED RESTORATION
Matrices for class III preparation with teeth in normal
alignments.
Suitable plastic strip burnished over the end of steel instrument to
produce a belly in the strip.

Strip cut to allow belly to be placed in the contact Corners of the strips
trimmed.

Wedge trimmed and applied to hold the strip in place.

For labial approach -> use fingers for left hand for holding the strip firmly
against lingual surface of the tooth.

After insertion of the material, reflect free end and hold the whole strip
firmly against restorative materials
TRANSPARENTANTERI
OR MATRIX BAND
WITH INTEGRATED
STAY
Self adhesive at one end.
Strip can be positioned and fastened
safely.
No need to hold the matrix band with a
finger
No hindrance to light curing.
CLEAR PLASTIC MATRIX

Cellophane or mylar strips, contoured using operating


pliers
Band placed with 1 mm beyond incisal and gingival
margins, stabilized with light transmitting wedges
Composite resin placed, Matix band held firmly against
surface, light curing.
Removal- first wedge, then slide out matrix
TRANSPARENT PLASTIC CROWN FORM

Indications large class IV cavities, oblique fractures of


anterior teeth
Commercially available- various sizes, contours
Select, trim, thin with abrasive at contact point, bulk
composite into crown form, positioned, light cured
Removal- carefully slit with bur and remove.
TIN FOIL MATRIX

Indicated in class V cavities with conventional glass ionomer


cements
Tin foil preshaped and cut to gingival contours. Placed to
extend 1mm beyond cavity outlines. GIC placed. Matrix
adapted with tweezers. Peeled away after GIC sets
Advantage Simple, easy to use, provides optimum contour
Disadvantages- cannot be used with resin modified GIC,
composite resin
PREFORMED TRANSPARENT CERVICAL
MATRIX

Indicated in Class V restorations with composite resins or


resin modified GIC.
Commercially available for anterior and posterior teeth.
Stabilised in place with tweezers till restoration hardens
Disadvantage - Expensive
SECTIONAL MATRIX
AND CONTACT RING
SYSTEMS

Three systems based on the McKean concept are available:


Palodent BiTine and BiTine ii
Contact Matrix (Danville Materials)
Composi-Tight (Garrison dental solutions)

The McKean , Danville, Garrison have retentive designs. The first two
have converging tines, and the Garrison has retentive balls at the
tine end. The Palodent with parallel tines, lacks retentive design.
These systems rely on sectional
matrix with an inner concavity to give
form to the proximal restoration wall.
The matrices come in various sizes
thickness and shapes depending on
the manufacturer

Palodent

Thickness Height

regular : 0.04-0.05mm regular :6 mm


mini: 0.04mm mini :
plus:0.05mm 5mm
plus:9mm
Palodent matrix
kit

Original bitine round


ring

Bitine 11 oval ring


CONCLUSION
The key to proper relationships interproximally is the contact
area in relation to its location, extent and size

The failure to comprehend these relationships will cause


premature failure of restorations
periodontal problems
carious involvement of adjacent tooth surfaces.

The use of matrix is essential to the proper contour of proximal,


proximoincisal or proximo occlusal restorations of a plastic
nature.