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Radiation:

Source, Effects,
Solutions
Cueto, Ian Roi R.
Najito, Czarina Marie D.
Introduction to
Radiation
Radiation is an energy in
the form of electro-
Radiation magnetic waves or
particulate matter,
traveling in the air.
Forces: There are many
interactions among nuclei. It
turns out that there are forces
other than the
electromagnetic force and the
Nuclear gravitational force which
Interactio govern the interactions
ns among nuclei.
Einstein in 1905m showed 2
more laws: energy/mass, and
binding energy
Atoms are composed of
smaller particles
Radioactiv referred to as:
ity:
Elements Protons
& Atoms Neutrons
Electrons
Electrons (-) orbiting nucleus of protons (+)
and neutrons. Same number of electrons as
protons; net charge = 0.
Atomic number (number of protons)
determines element.
Basic Mass number (protons + neutrons)
Model of a
Neutral
Atom
If a nucleus is unstable for
any reason, it will emit and
absorb particles. There are
Radioactiv many types of radiation
ity and they are all pertinent
to everyday life and health
as well as nuclear physical
applications.
Ionizing radiation is produced by unstable
atoms. Unstable atoms differ from stable
atoms because they have an excess of energy
or mass or both.
Unstable atoms are said to be radioactive. In
order to reach stability, these atoms give off,
Ionization or emit, the excess energy or mass. These
emissions are called radiation.
Types or
Products
of Ionizing
Radiation
The electro-magnetic waves vary in
their length and frequency along a
very wide spectrum.

Electromagne
tic
Spectrum
Electromagne
tic
Spectrum
(cont)
Radiation is classified into:
Ionizing radiation
Higher energy electromagnetic waves
(gamma) or heavy particles (beta and
alpha).
Types of High enough energy to pull electron
Radiation from orbit.
Non-ionizing radiation
Lower energy electromagnetic waves.
Not enough energy to pull electron
from orbit, but can excite the electron.
It is a type of radiation that is able
to disrupt atoms and molecules on
which they pass through, giving rise
to ions and free radicals
A radiation is said to be ionizing when it has enough energy
to eject one or more electrons from the atoms or molecules
in the irradiated medium. This is the case of a and b
radiations, as well as of electromagnetic radiations such as
Ionizing gamma radiations, X-rays and some ultra-violet rays. Visible
or infrared light are not, nor are microwaves or radio waves.
Radiation
Alpha particles
Beta particles
Primary Gamma rays (or
Types of
Ionizing photons)
Radiation X-Rays (or photons)
Neutrons
Alpha Particles: 2 neutrons and 2 protons
They travel short distances, have large mass
Only a hazard when inhaled
Alpha Particles (or Alpha Radiation): Helium nucleus (2 neutrons and
2 protons); +2 charge; heavy (4 AMU). Typical Energy = 4-8 MeV;
Limited range (<10cm in air; 60m in tissue); High LET (QF=20)
causing heavy damage (4K-9K ion pairs/m in tissue). Easily
Alpha shielded (e.g., paper, skin) so an internal radiation hazard.
Eventually lose too much energy to ionize; become He.
Particle
Beta Particles: Electrons or positrons
having small mass and variable energy.
Electrons form when a neutron
transforms into a proton and an electron
Beta Particles: High speed electron ejected from nucleus;
-1 charge, light 0.00055 AMU; Typical Energy = several
KeV to 5 MeV; Range approx. 12'/MeV in air, a few mm in
tissue; Low LET (QF=1) causing light damage (6-8 ion
pairs/m in tissue). Primarily an internal hazard, but high
Beta beta can be an external hazard to skin. In addition, the
high speed electrons may lose energy in the form of X-
Particle rays when they quickly decelerate upon striking a heavy
material. This is called Bremsstralung (or Breaking)
Radiation. Aluminum and other light (<14) materials are
used for shielding.
Gamma Rays (or photons):
Result when the nucleus
releases energy, usually after
an alpha, beta or positron
Gamma transition
Rays
X-Rays: Occur whenever
an inner shell orbital
electron is removed and
rearrangement of the
X-Rays
atomic electrons results
with the release of the
elements characteristic X-
Ray energy
X-rays are photons
(Electromagnetic radiations)
emitted from electron orbits.
X- and Gamma rays are photons
Gamma emitted from the nucleus,
Rays often as part of radioactive
decay. Gamma rays typically
have higher energy (Mev's)
than X-rays (KeV's), but both
are unlimited.
Neutrons: Have the
Neutrons same mass as protons
but are uncharged
They are electromagnetic waves
incapable of producing ions while
passing through matter, due to their
lower energy.
All earth surface system components emit radiation---
the sun and the earth are the components we are most
Non- interested in
ionizing The sun emits radiation composed of high energy
infrared radiation, visible light, and ultraviolet radiation
Radiation collectively known as shortwave radiation (SW)
The earth emits radiation composed of lower energy
infrared radiation collectively known as long-wave
radiation (LW)
Path of
incoming
solar
radiation
Albedo: a measure of how well a
surface reflects insolation

Albedo
Visible light
Microwaves
Non- Radios
ionizing Video Display Terminals
Radiation Power lines
Sources
Radiofrequency Diathermy
(Physical Therapy)
Lasers
Other
Manmade
Sources of
Non-
Ionizing
Radiation
Nuclear explosions and detonations of
nuclear weapons probably the highest
amounts of human-induced radiation
pollution have been generated in the mid
twenty century through various
experimental or combat nuclear
Other detonations (that ended the Second World
Sources of War).
Radiation Defense weapon production may also
release radioactivity from the handled
radioactive materials (usually of high health
risks). However, unless accident occurs, the
current standards will not allow the release
of any significant amount of radiation.
Nuclear waste handling and
disposal may generate low to
medium radiation over long
Other period of times. The radioactivity
may contaminate and propagate
Sources of through air, water, and soil as
Radiation well. Thus, their effects may not
(cont) be easily distinguishable and are
hard to predict. Additional, some
nuclear waste location may not
be identified.
Miningof radioactive ores (such as uranium
ores) involve the crushing and processing
of radioactive ores and generate radioactive
by-products. Mining of other ores may also
generate radioactive wastes (such as mining
of phosphate ores).
Nuclear accidents an already classic
Other example of such accident is the nuclear
explosion at a former Soviet nuclear power
Sources of plant fromChernobylthat occurred in the
Radiation mid 1986. Its effects are still seen today.
Another example is the 1979 explosion at
(cont) Three Mile Island nuclear-power generating
plant near Harrisburg, PA. The general
problems at nuclear weapons reactors are
other examples of this type of sources of
radiation pollution. Even accidents from
handling medical nuclear materials/wastes
could have radiation health effects on
workers.
A. Quantifying
Quantifica Radioactive Decay
tion of
Radiation B. Quantifying
Exposure and Dose
Measurement of Activity in
disintegrations per second (dps);
Quantifyin 1 Becquerel (Bq) = 1 dps;
g
1 Curie (Ci) = 3.7 x 1010 dps;
Radioactiv
e Decay Activity of substances are
expressed as activity per weight
or volume (e.g., Bq/gm or Ci/l).
Half Life
Calculatio
n
Exposure: Roentgen 1 Roentgen (R) =
amount of X or gamma radiation that
produces ionization resulting in 1
electrostatic unit of charge in 1 cm3 of dry
air. Instruments often measure exposure
rate in mR/hr.
Quantifyin Absorbed Dose: rad (Roentgen absorbed
g dose) = absorption of 100 ergs of energy
Exposure from any radiation in 1 gram of any material;
1 Gray (Gy) = 100 rads = 1 Joule/kg;
and Dose Exposure to 1 Roentgen approximates 0.9
rad in air.
Biologically Equivalent Dose: Rem (Roentgen
equivalent man) = dose in rads x QF, where
QF = quality factor. 1 Sievert (Sv) = 100
rems.
Risks from
radiation exposure
Myths created by the film
industry
Spider Man, The Hulk, Teenage
Introducti Mutant Ninja Turtles
on Radioactive Material Glows
The statistical probability
that personal injury will
result from some action
Risk smoking, speeding, extreme
sports, ect.
ionizing radiation exposure
Risk from a radiation dose is typically based
on calculations of the real effect of the
radiation dose that is absorbed.
These calculations are based on:
The type of radiation.
Each type of radiation is different and affects
tissues differently.
Risk The energy that it leaves in the body.

(cont) More energy means a higher probability of an


effect.
Where in the body the energy remains.
Radiation exposure to a nonsensitive area of
the body (i.e., wrist) really has no actual
effect. Radiation exposure to a sensitive area
of the body (i.e., blood-forming organs) can
have an effect if the amount of energy left is
high enough.
Effects of Radiation
Exposure
Safer than normal risk
Is
Radiation associated with many
Safe? activities encountered daily
Acute dose vs. Chronic
Dose
- whole body irradiation
vs. partial body
Physical irradiation
Factors of
Effects
0-25 No observable effect.

25-50 Minor temporary blood changes.


50-100 Possible nausea and vomiting
Acute and reduced WBC.
Dose
(Rad) 150-300 Increased severity of above and
diarrhea, malaise, loss of
Effect appetite.
300-500 Increased severity of above and
hemorrhaging, depilation. Death
may occur
> 500 Symptoms appear immediately,
then death has to occur.
General radiation doses to the entire body
and expected effects:
0-5 rem received in a short period or over a long period is
safewe dont expect observable health effects.
Chronic 5-10 rem received in a short time or over a long period is

Radiation safewe dont expect observable health effects. At this


level, an effect is either nonexistent or too small to observe.

Doses and 10-50 rem received in a short time or over a long periodwe
dont expect observable health effects, although above 10
Expected rem the chances of getting cancer are slightly increased. We
may also see short-term blood cell decreases for doses of
Effects about 50 rem received in a matter of minutes.
50-100 rem received in a short time will likely cause some
observable health effects and received over a long period
will increase the chances of getting cancer. Above 50 rem we
may see some changes in blood cells, but the blood system
quickly recovers.
General radiation doses to the entire body and
expected effects:
100-200 rem received in a short time will cause nausea and
fatigue.
Chronic 100-200 rem received over a long period will increase a persons
Radiation chances of getting cancer.
200-300 rem received in a short time will cause nausea and
Doses and vomiting within 24-48 hours. Medical attention should be sought.

Expected
300-500 rem received in a short time will cause nausea,
vomiting, and diarrhea within hours. Loss of hair and appetite
occurs within a week. Medical attention must be sought for
Effects survival; half of the people exposed to radiation at this high level
will die if they receive no medical attention.
(cont.)
500-1,200 rem in a short time will likely lead to death within a
few days.
Greater than 10,000 rem in a short time will lead to death within
a few hours.
Effective Dose Radiation Source

annual dose living at nuclear power plant


<= 0.01 rem perimeter; bitewing, panoramic, or full-mouth
dental x rays; skull or chest x ray

Commonly <=0.1 rem


single spine x ray; abdominal or pelvic x ray; hip x
ray; mammogram

Encounter kidney series of x rays; most barium-related x rays;


ed <=0.5 rem
head CT; any spine x-ray series; annual natural
background radiation dose; most nuclear medicine

Radiation brain, liver, kidney, bone

Doses <=1.0 rem


barium enema (x rays of the large intestine); chest,
abdomen, or pelvic CT

cardiac catheterization (heart x rays); coronary


<=5.0 rem angiogram (heart x rays); other heart x-ray studies;
most nuclear medicine heart scans
Activity Typical Dose
Smoking 280 millirem/year
Radioactive
<10
materialsuse
millirem/year
in a UM lab
10 millirem per x-
Annual Dental x-ray
ray
Exposure Chest x-ray
8 millirem per x-
ray
Drinking water 5 millirem/year
Cross country round trip by
5 millirem per trip
air
0.165
Coal Burning power plant
millirem/year
OSHA Limits: Whole body limit = 1.25
rem/qtr or 5 rem (50 mSv) per year.
Hands and feet limit = 18.75 rem/qtr.
Skin of whole body limit = 7.5 rem/qtr.
Exposure Total life accumulation = 5 x (N-18)
Limits rem where N = age. Can have 3
rem/qtr if total life accumulation not
exceeded.
Note: New recommendations reduce
the 5 rem to 2 rem.
External Annual Dose Limits
or Adult (>18 Minor (< 18
Internal yrs) yrs)
Whole body* 5000 500 mrem/yr
Exposure mrem/yr
Lens of eye 15000 1500
Limits for mrem/yr mrem/yr
Occupation Extremities 50000 5000
mrem/yr mrem/yr
ally Skin 50000 5000
mrem/yr mrem/yr
Exposed Organ 50000 5000
mrem/yr mrem/yr
Individuals *Effective dose equivalent
Maximum Permissible Dos Equivalent for Occupational Exposure
Combined whole body occupational
exposure
Prospective annual limit 5 rems in any 1 yr
Retrospective annual limit 10-15 rems in any 1 yr
(N-18) x5 rems. where N is age in
Long-term accumulation
yr

Skin 15 rems in any 1 yr


Hands 75 rems in any 1 yr (25/qtr)
Forearms 30 rems in any 1 yr (10/qtr)
Other organs, tissues and organ
systems
Fertile women (with respect to fetus) 0.5 rem in gestation period

Population dose limits 0.17 rem average per yr


(Reprinted from NCRP Publication No. 43, Review of the Current
State of Radiation Protection Philosophy, 1975)
Hazardous Waste Sites:
Communit Radiation above background
y (0.01-0.02 m rem/hr) signifies
Emergenc possible presence which must
y be monitored. Radiation
above 2 m rem/hr indicates
Radiation potential hazard. Evacuate
site until controlled.
Generalizations: Biological effects are
due to the ionization process that
destroys the capacity for cell
Health reproduction or division or causes cell
Effects mutation. A given total dose will cause
more damage if received in a shorter
time period. A fatal dose is (600 R)
Causes
breaks in
Ionizing one or
Radiation both DNA
at the strands or;
Cellular Causes
Level Free
Radical
formation
Indirect damage
Water molecule is ionized, breaks apart, and
forms OH free radical.
OH free radical contains an unpaired electron in
Radiation the outer shell and is highly reactive: Reacts with
Damage to DNA.
75 percent of radiation-caused DNA damage is
Chromoso due to OH free radical.
mes Direct damage
DNA molecule is struck by radiation, ionized,
resulting in damage.
Formation of a ring and
fragments followed by
replication of chromosomes.

Chromoso
me
Damage
Interchange between two
chromosomes forms a chromosome
with two centromeres and
fragment, followed by replication.

Chromoso
me
Damage
The cell might:
Repair mild damage.
Have some mild damage that sits inactive
What until another agent interacts with the same
cell.
Follows (If it is a reproductive cell like sperm or egg
Chromoso cells) have damage to the genetic code that
me doesnt show up until future generations
(your children, their children, etc.).
Damage? Have some damage, causing it to become a
cancer.
Stop functioning.
Be killed.
Actively dividing cells are
most sensitive to radiation
damage.
Tissues that are more sensitive include
Cell skin, hair, early blood cells, and lining of
Sensitivity the intestine.
Tissues that are less sensitive include
muscle, bone, brain, and connective
tissue.
Organs generally most susceptible to
radiation damage include:
Lymphocytes, bone marrow, gastro-intestinal,
gonads, and other fast-growing cells.
The central nervous system is relatively
Critical resistant.
Organs to Many nuclides concentrate in certain organs
Radiation rather than being uniformly distributed over
the body, and the organs may be particularly
sensitive to radiation damage, e.g., isotopes
of iodine concentrate in the thyroid gland.
These organs are considered "critical" for the
specific nuclide.
Somatic Effect (Prompt or Delayed)
Stochastic Effect (Cancer)
- probability of effect occurring
Ionizing increases as doses increases.
Radiation - No Threshold
Exposure Non-Stochastic Effect (Cataracts)
- severity of the effect varies with
Effects dosage.
- Threshold dose
Acute Somatic Effects
Relatively immediate effects to a person
acutely exposed. Severity depends on dose.
Somatic Death usually results from damage to bone
marrow or intestinal wall.
Effects Acute radio-dermatitis is common in
radiotherapy; chronic cases occur mostly in
industry.
Delayed Somatic Effects:
Delayed effects to exposed person
include: Cancer, leukemia, cataracts,
Somatic life shortening from organ failure, and
Effects abortion. Probability of an effect is
proportional to dose (no threshold).
Severity is independent of dose.
Doubling dose for cancer is
approximately 10-100 rems.
Ionizing Teratogenic Effects (Offspring while
Radiation in-utero)
Exposure mental retardation
Effects malformations

(Cont)
Radiation Effects on Embryo/Fetus
Embryo/fetus is rapidly developing so is more sensitive to a
possible radiation effect than an adult.
Effects vary with amount of radiation and stage of
development of the embryo/fetus.
Principal effects are loss of pregnancy, malformations, and
mental retardation.1

Teratogeni Without radiation


percent.
exposure, risk of spontaneous abortion is 15

c Effects Without radiation


percent.
exposure, risk of genetic disease is 11

Without radiation exposure, risk of major malformation is 3


percent.
Without radiation exposure, risk of growth retardation is 3
percent.
Malformations are identical to those occurring naturally.
More than 10 rem is required to increase the rate of
malformations.
1
Brent RL. Utilization of developmental basic science principles in the evaluation of
reproductive risks from pre- and postconception environmental radiation exposure.
Teratology 59:182; 1999.
Genetic Effects (Future
Generations)
Anemia
Ionizing Epilepsy
Radiation Diabetes
Exposure Asthma
Effects Natural genetic
(Cont) mutation rate (U.S.)
- 10.5%
Genetic mutations occur from incorrect
repair of damaged chromosomes in egg
or sperm cells.
Ovaries can repair mild radiation damage.

Genetic Genetic mutations may show up in future


generations.
Effects Radiation-caused genetic mutations have
been shown in animal studies at very high
radiation doses (>25 rem).
Radiation-caused genetic mutations have not
been seen in exposed human populations.
Genetic effects to off-spring of
exposed persons are irreversible
and nearly always harmful.
Doubling dose for mutation rate
Genetic is approximately 50-80 rems.
Effects (Spontaneous mutation rate is
approx. 10-100 mutations per
million population per
generation.)
Radiofrequency Ranges (10 kHz to 300
GHz)
Effects only possible at ten
times the permissible exposure
Non- limit
ionizing Heating of the body (thermal
Radiation effect)
Effects Cataracts
Some studies show effects of
teratoginicity and
carcinogenicity.
Questions on Risks
and Exposure to
Radiation
How much radiation does it
take to cause a persons risk
for a health effect to
increase?
What are the health effects
Questions
that can occur if there is
enough exposure?
Is there a level of radiation
that is safe?
There are many thoughts on the answers
to these questions and suggested
answers lie along a continuum, especially
when the topic is low-level radiation.
Answers range:
From radiation is good for you (this is the
Answers hormesis hypothesis)
To low levels of radiation are safe (they do
not measurably increase your risk of
disease)
To any amount of radiation exposure carries
some risk (this is the linear no-threshold
hypothesis).
The following slides
show information that
is linked from earlier
slides.
By definition, hormesis is a generally favorable biological response
to low exposures to toxins or stressors that would give an
unfavorable response at high exposures.
Some studies of worker populations, plants, animals, and cells have
shown favorable health outcomes at low exposures of radiation as
compared to adverse outcomes at high exposures. However, these
studies have not been accepted as proof of a hormetic effect from
radiation.
There are some studies in which the authors report that cells

Hormesis exposed to a small amount of radiation (called a conditioning dose)


can actually produce what they refer to as an adaptive response
that makes cells more resistant to another dose of radiation.
Some potential issues:
Many of the results cannot be reproduced (meaning that other
scientists have tried to do the same testing and get the same results,
but havent been able to; this suggests that the initial results might
have been just due to chance).
Not every type of cell has this capacity for an adaptive response.
The adaptive response does not appear to last long (so the second
radiation dose would have to occur soon after the conditioning dose).
As early as the 1950s, when scientific groups were creating
radiation protection guidelines:
No one really knew what the effects of radiation at low doses
were or if there were any.
It was decided to assume that the radiation dose and the
effect of the dose were linear and proportional.

Linear This means for a given dose of radiation to a person, that


person has some possibility of a radiation effect; if the

No- dose of radiation is doubled, that person has twice the


possibility and so on.

Threshold It was also decided that at any dose, no matter how small,
there could be an effect (no threshold).

Hypothesi Setting radiation protection standards required erring on


the safe sidesetting a standard lower than it may have
s (LNT) to be if the real level of hazard were known. This was and
still is the basis for the LNT.
LNT was intended for scientists to set radiation protection
standards and not for general use; because it was easy to
use and explain, most people quickly presented it as fact
rather than saying we do not know the effects of low doses
of radiation or that low doses of radiation are safe.
Cancer and
Radiation
What is cancer? -
uncontrolled growth and
spread of abnormal cells
Causes - Many
Cancer Risk increases after age 40
Facts Risk factors
Personal Habits,
Environmental factors,
Occupational hazards
Prob. of developing cancer in
U.S. (from birth to age 74)
40% Male/Female
Death of cancer victims
Cancer 50% of personnel
Facts who develop
(Cont) cancer will die
Overall death rate from cancer
20%
The average natural lifetime incidence of cancer
in the United States is 42 percent42 out of
100 people will get cancer in their lifetime.
Diagnostic medical radiation exposures typically
Cancer will not increase this risk appreciably.
Facts Radiation exposure does not create a unique
(Cont) cancer risk situation, nor is the risk directly
measurable or distinguishable from the cancer
risk caused by other sources (environmental,
chemical, biological, etc.).
Radiation-induced cancers do not appear
until at least 10 years after exposure (for
tumors) or 2 years after exposure (for
leukemia).
Cancer The time after exposure until possible cancer
Facts formation is called the latent period.
(Cont) The risk of cancer after exposure can extend
beyond this latent period for the rest of a
persons life for tumors or about 30 years for
leukemia.
Cancers
Breast cancer
frequently Thyroid cancer
linked to
radiation Leukemia
Relative-Risk Coefficient - The
fractional increase in the
baseline incidence or
mortality rate for unit dose (4
x 10-4 )
Radiation
Risk If 10,000 indiv. received one
Estimate rem each over background
during their life, 4 additional
deaths would occur of the
2,000 that would naturally
occur
We lack scientific data to determine a
precise risk of cancer in the future from
radiation exposure today.

We estimate the increase in the cancer


incidence rate is about 0.17 percent per rem
Cancer of radiation dose1; this is based on effects
Risk seen at high doses.

Estimates However, it may be impossible to


demonstrate that additional cancers occur at
low levels of radiation exposure since the
normal incidence rate of cancer is plus or
minus some natural variation.
International Commission on Radiological
1

Protection, Publication No. 103; 2007.


This means that, of a group of 100 people, it
is estimated that about 42 will get a cancer
in their lifetime. If we expose each to one
rem of radiation, still about 42 will get a
Cancer cancer in their lifetime. If we expose each to
five rem of radiation, we estimate that about
Risk 43 will get a cancer in their lifetime.
Estimates What we cannot tell, though, is whether the
(cont.) estimated one additional cancer is just a
natural variation or whether it is due to the
radiation exposure.
A medical procedure involving radiation
should be done only when there is a
question to be answeredis something
broken, why the pounding headaches, could
there be cancer?
This is justification; i.e., there should be an
appropriate medical reason for the x ray to
Justificatio be performed.
n The issue of medical radiation exposure is
not only a matter of safety; its a matter of
benefit compared with risk.
For properly performed common medical
radiation procedures that are necessary in
light of the patients medical condition,
safety alone is not the issue.
ICRP Publication 60; Ann ICRP 21(1-3); 1991
Cancers are
indistinguishable
Ionizing radiation is not
only cause of cancer
Problems Long latency period of
cancer
with Cannot perform human
Models experiment
Studies may suggest
radiation as the cause of
cancer but cannot identify
Controls to
Radiation
A. Basic Control Methods for
External Radiation
Decrease Time
Increase Distance
Radiation Increase Shielding
Controls Time: Minimize time of exposure to minimize total
dose. Rotate employees to restrict individual dose.
Distance: Maximize distance to source to maximize
attenuation in air. The effect of distance can be
estimated from equations.
Shielding: Minimize exposure by placing absorbing
shield between worker and source.
B. Monitoring
Personal Dosimeters: Normally they
do not prevent exposures (no alarm),
just record it. They can provide a
Radiation record of accumulated exposure for
Controls an individual worker over extended
periods of time (hours, days or
(cont) weeks), and are small enough for
measuring localized exposures
Common types: Film badges;
Thermoluminescence detectors (TLD);
and pocket dosimeters.
Direct Reading Survey Meters and
Counters: Useful in identifying
source of exposures recorded by
personal dosimeters, and in
evaluating potential sources, such
as surface or sample contamination,
source leakage, inadequate
decontamination procedures,
Monitoring background radiation.
(cont) Common types:
Alpha Proportional or
Scintillation counters
Beta, gamma Geiger-Mueller or
Proportional counters
X-ray, Gamma Ionization
chambers
Neutrons Proportional counters
Continuous Monitors: Continuous direct
reading ionization detectors (same
detectors as above) can provide read-out
and/or alarm to monitor hazardous
locations and alert workers to leakage,
Monitoring thereby preventing exposures.
(cont) Long-Term Samplers: Used to measure
average exposures over a longer time
period. For example, charcoal canisters
or electrets are set out for days to
months to measure radon in basements
(should be <4 pCi/L).
Monitoring of exposures: Personal, area, and
screening measurements; Medical/biologic
monitoring.
Task-Specific Procedures and Controls: Initial,
periodic, and post-maintenance or other non-
Elements scheduled events. Engineering (shielding) vs. PPE
vs. administrative controls. Including management
of and employee commitment and authority to enforce
procedures and controls.
Radiation Emergency procedures: Response, "clean-up", post
Protection clean-up testing and spill control.
Training and Hazard Communications including
Program signs, warning lights, lockout/tagout, etc. Criteria for
need, design, and information given.
Material Handling: Receiving, inventory control,
storage, and disposal.
Law Enforcement for Radiation Pollution Control