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UNDERWATER

CONSTRUCTION
Introduction
Construction that happens under water.

Mainly foundation of bridges, dams etc require


underwater constructions.

Has many difficulties when the water depth is


considerable.

Main objective-to create dry and water free


environment for working to attain structural stability.
Wet Construction
CAISSONS

water tight retaining structure.

permanent in nature.

used in construction of bridge piers, building


columns, dams, etc.

constructed in a way that the water can be pumped


out.
ADVANTAGES
economic, less noise and reduced vibrations.

adaptable to varying site conditions.

high axial and lateral loading capacity.

placement is possible where pile driving is not


possible.
CAISSON DISEASE
It is so named since it appeared in construction
workers when they left the compressed atmosphere
of the caisson and re-entered the normal atmospheric
conditions.

Construction of the Brooklyn Bridge, which was


built with the help of caissons, resulted in numerous
workers being either killed or permanently injured
by caisson disease during its construction, including
the designers son and Chief Engineer of the project.
COFFERDAMS
temporary structure, built within or in pairs across a
body of water.

allows enclosed space to be pumped out.

enclosed coffers are used for construction and repair


of oil platforms, bridge piers and other support
structures within or over water.
Contd.

involves the interaction of the structure , soil and


water.

the loads imposed includes the hydrostatic forces


and the dynamic forces due to currents and waves.

used for shallow constructions having depth less


than 10m.
ADVANTAGES
allow construction and excavation in poor
environment.

provides safe environment to work.

sheet piles can easily be installed and removed.

materials can typically be reused on other projects


UNDERWATER CONCRETING

It is the process in which the prepared concrete is


poured below the water surface by using suitable
methods.

PLACEMENT METHODS
tremie method
pump method
toggle bags
TREMIE METHOD

Watertight pipe generally with 250mm diameter.

has a funnel shaped hopper at its top and a loose


plug at the bottom.

supported on a working platform above water level.

lower end of the pipe is kept immersed in fresh


concrete.
tremie pipe
PUMP METHOD
Pumping concrete directly into its final position,
involving both horizontal and vertical delivery of
concrete.

operational efficiency with potential savings of time


and labour.

for massive underwater concrete construction of


navigation structures, the method is prohibited.
TOGGLE BAGS
Used for the placement of small amounts of
concrete.

bag is filled in dry condition with wet concrete.

used mainly for repairing works.

concrete is squeezed out from the bag by the diver.


POSEIDON UNDERSEA RESORT- KATAFINGA
ISLAND , FIJI

Most luxurious of the underwater hotels.

currently being constructed for the past 13 years and


it is promised to be opened within couple of years.

it is 40feet under the sea in an offshore lagoon.

resort is set to house 25 suites, a restaurant, bar, and


even a wedding chapel.
LATEST UNDERWATER TENNIS COURT
DUBAI
Located in the Persian gulf between the Burj al Arab
and the Palm Jumeirah islands.

proposed by the polish architect Krysztof Kotala.

sports arena will also double up as an aquarium with


a rooftop coral reef which will put on display an
abundance of sea life for spectators as well as for
players.
CONCLUSION
Cofferdams are used in cases where the plan area of
the foundation is very large, depth of water is less
and for soft soils.

Caissons becomes economical in cases where the


plan are of foundation is small, large depth of water
and for loose soil.

Tremie placement method is the standard way of


placing high quality concrete under water.
Submitted by,

Hamsui Harold
&
Sharu Tany Prasad
THANK YOU