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Metal Removal Processes

Introduction
Machining of materials is adopted to get higher surface
finish, close tolerances, which are otherwise difficult to
obtain.
Of all the manufacturing processes available, metal
removal is perhaps the most expensive one.
A machine tool is one which, while holding the cutting
tool would be able to remove metal from a work piece in
order to generate required job of given size.
A machine tool is different from machine, which is
essentially a means of converting the source of power
from one form to the other.
Material removed from the part is achieved by the
relative movement between the cutting tool and the part.
Function of Machine Tool
Holding, supporting and rotating (moving) the work piece.

Holding, guiding and feeding the cutting tool.

Providing power.

Regulating cutting speed, feed


Machine Tool
Traditional:
Lathe
Drilling
Milling
Shaper
Planer

Non-Traditional:
EDM
ECM
LBM, etc.
Lathe
A centre lathe is also called an engine lathe or simply a
lathe. It is one of the commonest and oldest machine
tools. It is also one of the most versatile and widely used
machines. Its main function is production of cylindrical
profiles.
Lathe operation
Turning Taper Turning Contour Turning

Facing Chamfering
Cut off Threading

Knurling
Drilling
Drilling is a process of producing round holes in a solid
material or enlarging existing holes with the use of
cutting tools called drills or drill bits. Various cutting
tools are available for drilling, but the most common is
the twist drill.
Drilling Operation
Milling
Milling is a process of producing flat and complex shapes
with the use of multi-tooth cutting tool, which is called a
milling cutter and the cutting edges are called teeth. The
axis of rotation of the cutting tool is perpendicular to the
direction of feed, either parallel or perpendicular to the
machined surface.
Up and Down Milling
Up Milling Down Milling

Cutting and Feed Motion Cutting and Feed Motion


opposite direction. Same direction.
Chip is thin at beginning. Max chip thickness
Cutter tend to lift work encountered in beginning
upward.
Greater clamping force.
Up Milling Down Milling

Poorer surface finish. Good Surface finish.


Chips can be carried into Chips leave tangentially
newly machined surface. along teeth.
Milling Machine
OPERATIONS PERFORMED ON MILLING MACHINE
Shaper & Planer
Planing is a machining operation in which the primary
cutting motion is performed by the work piece and feed
motion is imparted to the cutting tool. In shaping, the
primary motion is performed by the tool, and feed by the
work piece: