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Contents

Introduction to Reverse Engineering


Digitization Techniques
Principles
Classification
Advantages and Disadvantages
Selection
Commercial systems
Applications
Forward Engineering Vs Reverse
Engineering

Con
cep
tual

g
in

Re
er
Requirements

ve
ne

rs
gi

e
En

En
d

gi
ar

Design

n
rw

ee
Fo

r in
g
Implementation
What is Reverse Engineering?
Process of Analyzing an
object or an existing system
(hardware and software)
To identify its component and
interrelationships
What Is Reverse Engineering?
The process of duplicating an existing part, component
or product, without the aid of drawings,
documentation, or computer model is known as Reverse
Engineering.
Why Reverse Engineering ?
The original manufacturer of
a product no longer produces
the product ,

The original manufacturer no


longer exists, but a customer
needs the product.

The original design


documentation has been lost
or never existed.
Steps in 3D Digitization

Pre-
Digitization processing Interpolatio
Techniques Noise n
removal Updation
Segmentati
Data on CAD model
Capture Surface creation
Fitting
Method of 3D
measuring

Contact Non contact

Coordinate
Arms with touch Based on
measuring Based on reflection
probe transmission
machine

CT MRI Optical Non optical

Triangulation Interferometry Structured light Image analysis Ultrasound -SONAR Microwave Radar

Shapes from
Grey codes
Moire silhoutes
Stereovision Color codes
Conoscopic Shapes from
Laser Linear arrays profiles
holography
Patterns
Depth from focus
Method of 3D
measuring

Contact Non contact

Coordinate
Arms with touch Based on
measuring Based on reflection
probe transmission
machine

CT MRI Optical Non optical

Triangulation Interferometry Structured light Image analysis Ultrasound -SONAR Microwave Radar

Shapes from
Grey codes
Moire silhoutes
Stereovision Color codes
Conoscopic Shapes from
Laser Linear arrays profiles
holography
Patterns
Depth from focus
Coordinate Measuring Machine
Principle of Switching probes
Probe Stylus
Ruby ball styli

Star styli

Pointer styli

Ceramic hollow ball styli


CMM configurations
Moving Fixed Cantilever Horizontal Gantry
Bridge Bridge Arm
General x x x x
Purpose
Precision x x
(gauge
calibration)

Large Parts x x x
(car bodies, (Aerospace
diesel structure)
engine
blocks)
Method of 3D
measuring

Contact Non contact

Coordinate
Arms with touch Based on
measuring Based on reflection
probe transmission
machine

CT MRI Optical Non optical

Triangulation Interferometry Structured light Image analysis Ultrasound -SONAR Microwave Radar

Shapes from
Grey codes
Moire silhoutes
Stereovision Color codes
Conoscopic Shapes from
Laser Linear arrays profiles
holography
Patterns
Depth from focus
Arm with touch Probe
Name of Method Contact/ Incremental or Detection Method What is Measured or Type of Tracking Portability
Non-contact Absolute Algorithmically Along Surface
Method Distance Extracted
Measurement
(ADM)
Traditional Fixed Contact Absolute Center of Spherical Probe tips center Fixed multi-axis Immobile
CMM Tip Contacts Surface (x,y,z) position is coordinate technique
recorded, true measurement requiring part be
surface calculated machine (CMM) brought to the
based on a measurement tool
compensation
vector, displacement
in time
Portable CMM: Contact Absolute Center of Spherical Probe tips center Six-axis or a Arm with many
Articulated Arm Tip Contacts Surface position is recorded, seven-axis flexible joints,
true surface articulated brought near the
calculated based on (jointed) arm part to be
a compensation measured
vector, displacement
in time
Portable CMM: Contact Either or both, Center of a Laser beam is locked Laser beam tracks Portable; tracker is
Laser Tracker Interferometer spherically mounted on center of SMR; the 3D coordinates brought near the
based or ADM retro reflector (SMR) azimuth and of SMRs center part to measure
contacts surface elevation angles of
laser beam are
measured, distance
between laser
tracker origin and
SMR is measured
Portable CMM: Contact Absolute Center of a spherical Center of all visible Tracks reflective or Portable; tracker is
Optical Tracker tip mounted with light-emitting or emitting targets brought near the
light-emitting or passive targets part to measure
Commercial Systems
Method of 3D
measuring

Contact Non contact

Coordinate
Arms with touch Based on
measuring Based on reflection
probe transmission
machine

CT MRI Optical Non optical

Triangulation Interferometry Structured light Image analysis Ultrasound -SONAR Microwave Radar

Shapes from
Grey codes
Moire silhoutes
Stereovision Color codes
Conoscopic Shapes from
Laser Linear arrays profiles
holography
Patterns
Depth from focus
MRI
Method of 3D
measuring

Contact Non contact

Coordinate
Arms with touch Based on
measuring Based on reflection
probe transmission
machine

CT MRI Optical Non optical

Triangulation Interferometry Structured light Image analysis Ultrasound -SONAR Microwave Radar

Shapes from
Grey codes
Moire silhoutes
Stereovision Color codes
Conoscopic Shapes from
Laser Linear arrays profiles
Olography
Patterns
Depth from focus
Principle of CT scan
Different generations of CT machines

First generation Second generation

Third generation Fourth generation


Principle of operation of CT scan
CT number
Image reconstruction using
Back Projection (BP)
Three views shows
the CT number plot
The peak
corresponds to a
high dense material
encountered in the
section
Image reconstruction using
Back Projection (BP)
Reconstruction using back projection algorithms without
filtering
Image reconstruction using
Filtered Back Projection (FBP)
Reconstructed CT image
Hounsfield scale

A gray scale image can be converted to Hounsfield scale using


linear transformations
Method of 3D
measuring

Contact Non contact

Coordinate
Arms with touch Based on
measuring Based on reflection
probe transmission
machine

CT MRI Optical Non optical

Triangulation Interferometry Structured light Image analysis Ultrasound -SONAR Microwave Radar

Shapes from
Grey codes
Moire silhoutes
Stereovision Color codes
Conoscopic Shapes from
Laser Linear arrays profiles
holography
Patterns
Depth from focus
Stereovision

http://www.depthbiomechanics.co.uk/?p=102
Triangulation with Laser Striping
Time of Flight
Method of 3D
measuring

Contact Non contact

Coordinate
Arms with touch Based on
measuring Based on reflection
probe transmission
machine

CT MRI Optical Non optical

Triangulation Interferometry Structured light Image analysis Ultrasound -SONAR Microwave Radar

Shapes from
Grey codes
Moire silhoutes
Stereovision Color codes
Conoscopic Shapes from
Laser Linear arrays profiles
holography
Patterns
Depth from focus
Formation of moir fringes
Conoscopic holography
Method of
3D
measuring

Non
Contact
contact

Coordinate Arms with Based on


Based on
measuring touch transmissio
reflection
machine probe n

CT MRI Optical Non optical

Triangulatio Structured Image Ultrasound Microwave


Interferometry
n light analysis -SONAR Radar

Grey codes
Stereovisio Moire Shapes from silhoutes
n Color codes
Conoscopic Shapes from profiles
Laser holography Linear arrays
Depth from focus
Patterns
Laser Striping
Linear Arrays of Pattern
Color coded Structural light system
Structural Light
Method of
3D
measuring

Non
Contact
contact

Coordinate Arms with Based on


Based on
measuring touch transmissio
reflection
machine probe n

CT MRI Optical Non optical

Triangulatio Structured Image Ultrasound Microwave


Interferometry
n light analysis -SONAR Radar

Grey codes Shapes from


Stereovisio Moire silhouettes
n Color codes
Conoscopic Shapes from profiles
Laser holography Linear arrays
Patterns Depth from focus
Shape from Silhouettes
Shape from profiles
Destructive, from 2D cross sectional profiles
Shape from Focus/Defocus
Photogrammetry
Method of
3D
measuring

Non
Contact
contact

Coordinate Arms with Based on


Based on
measuring touch transmissio
reflection
machine probe n

CT MRI Optical Non optical

Triangulatio Structured Image Ultrasound Microwave


Interferometry
n light analysis -SONAR Radar

Grey codes Shapes from


Stereovisio Moire silhouettes
n Color codes
Conoscopic Shapes from profiles
Laser holography Linear arrays
Patterns Depth from focus
Ultra-sound Sonar
Method of
3D
measuring

Non
Contact
contact

Coordinate Arms with Based on


Based on
measuring touch transmissio
reflection
machine probe n

CT MRI Optical Non optical

Triangulatio Structured Image Ultrasound Microwave


Interferometry
n light analysis -SONAR Radar

Grey codes Shapes from


Stereovisio Moire silhouettes
n Color codes
Conoscopic Shapes from profiles
Laser holography Linear arrays
Patterns Depth from focus
Microwave/Radar
Name of Method Contact/ Incremental or Detection Method What is Measured or Type of Tracking Portability
Non-contact Absolute Algorithmically Along Surface
Method Distance Extracted
Measurement
(ADM)
Traditional Fixed Contact Absolute Center of Spherical Probe tips center Fixed multi-axis Immobile
CMM Tip Contacts Surface (x,y,z) position is coordinate technique
recorded, true measurement requiring part be
surface calculated machine (CMM) brought to the
based on a measurement tool
compensation
vector, displacement
in time
Portable CMM: Contact Absolute Center of Spherical Probe tips center Six-axis or a Arm with many
Articulated Arm Tip Contacts Surface position is recorded, seven-axis flexible joints,
true surface articulated brought near the
calculated based on (jointed) arm part to be
a compensation measured
vector, displacement
in time
Portable CMM: Contact Either or both, Center of a Laser beam is locked Laser beam tracks Portable; tracker is
Laser Tracker Interferometer spherically mounted on center of SMR; the 3D coordinates brought near the
based or ADM retro reflector (SMR) azimuth and of SMRs center part to measure
contacts surface elevation angles of
laser beam are
measured, distance
between laser
tracker origin and
SMR is measured
Portable CMM: Contact Absolute Center of a spherical Center of all visible Tracks reflective or Portable; tracker is
Optical Tracker tip mounted with light-emitting or emitting targets brought near the
light-emitting or passive targets part to measure
Technolo Category Activ Surface Type of Detection Principle Typical Beneficial EFR
gy e or or Radiant Method Technologies
Name(s) Passi Volume Energy
ve ric
Laser Triangulation Activ Surface Laser Optical detection Reflected light is focused onto a Custom encoder-based
Flying Spot e of a single laser camera. Known projection and translation or rotation
Triangulati spot by camera collection angles relative to a baseline systems, laser trackers,
on sensors or CCDs determines the dimensions of a optical trackers,
triangle and coordinates of surface photogrammetry,
point. articulated arm portable
CMM, robots
Laser Line Triangulation Activ Surface Laser Optical detection Reflected light is focused onto a Custom encoder-based
Scanning e of projected laser camera. Known projection and translation or rotation
line by camera collection angles relative to a baseline systems, laser trackers,
sensors or CCDs determine the dimensions of a triangle optical trackers,
and coordinates of surface point. photogrammetry,
articulated arm portable
CMM, robots
Fringe- Triangulation Activ Surface White light Optical detection Fringe patterns of light of various For areas <1m x 1m:
based e from of projected light resolutions are used to uniquely photogrammetry,
Projection halogen or fringe patterns on determine projection directions over turntable and gantry, or
Digitizing other lamp camera sensors objects surface. Reflections are best-fit alignment using
source or CCDs collected in one or more cameras and overlapping areas. For
analyzed. large areas >1m x 1m:
photogrammetry, optical
tracker, mechanical
tracker or robot
Technology Category Activ Surface Type of Detection Method Principle Typical Beneficial EFR
Name(s) e or or Radiant Technologies
Passi Volumeri Energy
ve c
Conoscopic Interferome Active Surface Laser Optical detection of Reflected light is diffused Fixed CMM or 3-axis
Holography tric polarized light through a crystal and projected mechanical tracking
technique interference patterns onto a CCD. Frequency system
on CCDs analyses of the resulting
diffraction patterns determines
distance to the object,
producing 3D holograms.
Industrial CT Active Volumetri X-ray X-ray detection Attenuated x-ray energy No external EFR, included
Computer c passes through a rotating in turnkey system
Tomography object. Stacking 2D cross
(CT) sectional images builds 3D
image.
Time of Flight TOF Active Surface Laser Optical detection of Pulsed laser light is sent to the Center of reflective probe
(TOF), Pulse- laser beam pulses object, and a portion of that is tracked by laser. EFR
based Laser pulse is reflected. Absolute using optical targets in
Digitzing, Laser distance to target is calculated the scene and post-
Tracking based on the time for the pulse processing software
to return to the detector.
TOF Phase TOF Active Surface Laser Optical detection of Varying wavelength laser light Center of reflective probe
Shift Laser laser lights phase is sent to object; phase shift of is tracked by laser. EFR
Digitizing shift reflected wave is measured to using optical targets in
determine objects position and the scene and post-
intensity. processing software
Dense Stereo Non- Passiv Surface None Optical detection of A point on the surface is Post-processing software
Vision destructive e ambient white light using located by analyzing the
Digitizing white high-resolution or difference of multiple images of
light stereo cameras the surface taken by high-
speed, high-resolution or
Uncertainity

http://www.deskeng.com/de/3d-scanning-101/
http://www.deskeng.com/de/3d-scanning-101/
Digitization Techniques
Developments in digital imaging devices, electro-optical
components, laser and other light sources
3-D shape measurement is now well developed and many
techniques have been successfully commercialized.
On the other hand, digitization of objects is a field of continuous
research and development that can offer with many possibilities,
again under the scope of a specific digitization plan.
Selection of a Suitable Method
The plethora of available 3D digitization systems is the
result of four main factors that influence the suitability
and the applicability of a method are
(i) complexity in size and shape,
(ii) morphological complexity (level of detail)
(iii) diversity of raw materials and
(iv) deformable or rigid surface.

Hence based on the object condition, data acquisition


methods are chosen
Applications of 3D Digitization
Control for intelligent robots
Obstacle detection for vehicle guidance,
Dimension measurement for die development,
Stamping panel geometry checking,
Accurate stress/strain and vibration measurement.
Application of 3D Digitization
Reconstruction of 3D surfaces from 3D images of
tumors, prosthetics, and brain and organ imagery
during surgical procedures.
In dental applications for denture and mouth guard
design andmanufacturing of surgical guides.
Custom design of in-the-canal hearing aids, orthotic
insoles and surgical planning models.
Artists and museums use 3D digitization for replication
and archiving of valuable artifacts and artwork.
Practical Problems
The major ones include
calibration,
accuracy,
accessibility,
occlusion,
fixturing,
multiple views,
noise and incomplete data,
statistical distributions of parts and
surface finish

Many of these can be overcome using hardware, algorithms and software [6].
3D Scanning
computer-aided design (CAD)

digital physical
model object

reverse engineering/
3D scanning

shape color material


surface
reconstruction
Surface reconstruction
points surface
P S

reverse engineering
traditional design (wood,clay)
virtual environments
Example Reconstruction

Surface
Reconstruction
Algorithm
Surface reconstruction problem
Given: points P sampled from
unknown surface U

Goal: reconstruct a surface S


approximating U
accurate (w.r.t. P, and U!)
concise
Why is this difficult?
Points P
unorganized
noisy

Surface S
arbitrary, unknown topological type
sharp features

Algorithm must infer:


topology, geometry, and sharp features
3-Phase reconstruction method
points Goals:

phase 1 Find initial surface of correct


topological type.
initial mesh
Improve its accuracy and
phase 2 conciseness.
optimized mesh
Find piecewise smooth surface.
phase 3
Detect sharp features automatically
optimized
subdivision surface
Example

1 2

13,000 points

3
Phase 1: Initial surface estimation
If U were known, it would satisfy
U = Z(d) = { p | d(p)=0 } ,
where d(p) is the signed distance of p to U

d(p)? +
+ +
+
+ + + + ++
U
+ + +

+ +


d(p)?
+ +
+
+
+ + + +
+ +
S
P

Estimate d from P Extract Z(d)


Phase 1 (contd)
How to estimate d?
compute tangent planes orient them consistently
Principal Component Analysis
PCA
Phase 1 (contd)
How to extract Z(d)?
run marching cubes
Phase 2: Mesh optimization

Input: data points P, initial mesh Minitial


Output: optimized mesh M, minimizing
E(M) = Edistance + Ecomplexity
Phase 2 (contd)
Optimization over:

the number of
vertices

their connectivity

their positions

consider any mesh of the same topological type as


Minitial
Phase 2 (contd)
Nested optimization:
optimize connectivity
for fixed connectivity, optimize geometry

Greedy approach:
consider local
perturbations
accept if E(M)<0

edge collapse edge split edge swap


Phase 2: Results

using 31,000 points using 13,000 points using 182,000 points


Phase 3: Piecewise smooth surface

piecewise planar piecewise smooth


surface
Subdivision surfaces

M0 M1 M2
S=M

tagged control mesh


Phase 3 (contd)
Generalize phase 2 optimization:

edge collapse edge split edge swap edge tag

Again, apply perturbation if E(M)<0


Phase 3: Results
Procedure
volumetric repr
phase 1
alpha shapes
initial mesh
phase 2
optimized mesh
phase 3 NURBS surface

optimized
subdivision surface
CAD models