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Data Acquisition in Remote Sensing

(Unit 2 )
Topic 3

By:-
Dr. Pratibha Shingare

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
History of R.S

Remote Sensing began in the 1840s


Further German V-2 rockets launched out of
White sands New Mexico captures Images.
In the 1960s Sensors obtaining B-W TC like
Images

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
History of R.S described in 3 Sections:-

1.The Early Age (1839- 1907)


2.The Middle Age (1908- 45)
3.The Modern Age ( 1946 Onwards)

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
Early Age
Gaspar Felix Tournachon (1820- 1910)-
Also called as Nadar
He took first aerial photograph from ballon
& in 1860 Nadar took aerial photos of
French Army moving in World War I
13 October 1860- James Wallace Black-
Pioneer of Oldest aerial Photograph

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
G. R Lawrence- Took first aerial
photograph by using Kite
Julius Neubrone (1903)- Patented a
breast mounted camera for Pigeons.
Albert Maul (1906)- Rocket for lifting
camera to take aerial photographs

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
Middle Age

Wright Brothers (1903)- Flying Machine


L. P Bonvillain (1908)- Used Airplane for
Aerial photography
Wilbur Wright (1908)- First aerial motion
picture

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
Dr. Eggerton (1940)- Developed Camera
Strobe to capture series of Photographs
Beginning of World War II boosts Aerial
photography & Remote Sensing.

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
Modern Age
Viking Program (1946)- US army
launched German Rocket containing
Camera system to capture aerial
photographs
Westinghouse (1954)- Developed first
side-looking airborne RADAR. This event
is milestone for Active Remote Sensing

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
Sputnik (4 October 1957)- First Artificial
Satellite System by Russia
TIROS Television & Infra Red
Observation Satellite . Launched by U.S
Zaitor & Tsuprun (1962)- Developed nine
lens multi spectral camera.

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
Apollo 9 (1968)- First Multispectral
Photography from Space
ERTS (1967)- Earth Resource
Technology Program by NASA .
Landsat (1972)- Contains Multi Spectral
Scanner with R, G band along with Two
I.R Bands at 80 m Resolution.

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
Landsat-1
- Near Polar Sun Synchronous Orbit
- 3 Camera return beam Vidicon System
- Obtain Visible & Near I.R images
- Aerial Photos available Publically

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
Seasat (1978)
First Satellite Borne RADAR System
First SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar)
AVIRIS (1980)
Airborne Visible I.R Imaging
Spectrometer
Hyper Spectral Imagery function.

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
RESURS-01
- Multispectral System
- 3 Visible NIR Bands (2 for Thermal)
- Resolution was 160 m for Visible & 600

m for Thermal
- Near Polar Sun Synchronous Orbit

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
SPOT-1 (1986)
- Systeme probatorie de la Observation
de la Terre (French abbreviation)
IRS 1A (1988)
- Indian Remote Sensing Satellite System
IKONOS (1999)
- First Private R.S Satellite

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
Indian Space Program
First Era of Indian R.S was in Ramayana &
Mahabharata.
Tipu Sultan- Innovator of the Worlds first
War Rocket
Now Tipu Sultans Rockets displayed in
Royal Ordnance Museum, Arsenal London

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
INCOPSAR
Indian Committee for Space Research
TIFR
Tata Institute of Fundamental Research
TERLS (1962)
Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching
Station

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
NIKE APACHE (1963)
- First Sounding Rocket
- Sounding Rockets are used to examine
near earth environment
SLV
- Indian Satellite Launch Vehicle
- Designed to Inject satellite/ Payload in
to Orbit

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
Payload can be defined as Instruments &
Equipments carried on Spacecraft.
ISRO (1969)
- Department under Atomic Energy to
conduct Space Program.
DOS (1972)
- Department of Space

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
ISRO
1. Indian Space Research Organization
2. Primary agency for all space related
activities in India
3. Research, Development, of Space System

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
Bhaskara I (1979)
First Indian Remote Sensing Satellite
Antrix Corporation Ltd. (1972)
Commercial Arm of DOS

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
ISRO Centers
1. VSSC- Vikram Sarabhai Space Center,
Trivandrum India
2. Liquid Propulsion System Center,
Bangalore India
3. ISRO Satellite Center- Design fabrication,
testing for satellites

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
4. SHAR Center- Orbital Launch site,
Largest solid motor production & testing
site, Sriharikota India
5. ISRO Inertial System Unit
6. ISTRAC
ISRO Telemetry, Tracking, Command
Network

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
7. SAC
Space Application Center, Ahmedabad
for R & D in Communication, Remote
Sensing, Geodesy.
8. MCF
INSAT Master Control Facility located at
Hasan Benglore

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
9. DECU
Development & Educational
Communication Unit, Ahmedabad
10. NRSC
National Remote Sensing Center,
Hyderabad

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
NRSC
National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA)
Main Activities include Satellite data
capture, data processing, data
dissemination, application for providing
value added service
In 2008 NRSA converted as NRSC
www.nrsc.gov.in

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
Indian launch Programs
Aryabhatta
i. First Artificial Satellite from India.
ii. Objective was to design & fabricate a
space worthy satellite system & evaluate
its performance in orbit.
iii.To evolve the methodology of conducting
a series of complex operations,

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
Bhaskara-I, Bhaskara-II
i. Launched on June 1979
ii. Weight- 444 kg
iii.Orbit- 619 km x 562 km
iv.Inclination- 50.7 Degree
v. Two Television Cameras; Visible & NIR
vi.Bhaskara II launched in 1981

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
SLV-3
i. Satellite Launch Vehicle 3
ii. First Multistage rocket of ISRO
iii.Weight- 17, 610 kg
iv.Length- 24.2 meter

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
Rohini Series
i. Launched on August 1979
ii. Rohini 1A- Failed
iii.Rohini 1B- Weight 35 kg
iv.Rohini 2- Launched with SLV-3-D1
v. Rohini 3- Smart Sensor camera places as
primary payload. Facility to capture water,
vegetation, bare land, clouds.

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
APPLE
i. Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment
ii. Indias first geostationary communication
satellite
iii.The Indian TV programs & educational
teleconferences relayed through it

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
INSAT
i. INSAT-1A (1982)- Provide nationwide TV
programs for rural areas
ii. Till February 2011 INSAT Series have 11
operational Satellite series
iii.Provide Telecommunication, TV programs,
Radio Communication

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
ASLV
i. Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle
ii. Five stage vehicle
iii.Out of 4 attempts only 1 succeed
iv.Primary Stage of PSLV

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
SROSS
i. Stretched Rohini Satellite Series
ii. Carry small scientific & technology
payloads
iii.Astrophysics, Earth Remote Sensing,
Upper atmospheric monitoring
experiments
iv.SROSS A, B, C, C2 launched till date

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
PSLV
i. Unique satellite launch vehicle having both
liquid & solid fuel engines
ii. Polar Sun synchronous Orbit
iii.16 successive flights to carry payloads
iv.Used in Chandrayan-1

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
GSLV
i. Geosynchronous satellite launch Vehicle
ii. Carry heavy payloads
iii.Used in launching of telecommunication,
environmental monitoring, disaster
warning systems satellites

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
IRS
i. National Natural Resource Management
System (NNRMS)
ii. Data from IRS satellite used by different
countries all over the world.
iii.Initialization of applications in areas like
urban development, infrastructure
planning

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
Remote Sensing Sensors of India
LISS Series- Linear Imaging Self Scanning
Sensors
PAN Sensors (Panchromatic)
WiFS - Wide Field Sensor
- To capture data in wide swath with 4
bands
AWiFS - Advanced wide field Sensor

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
MOS- Multispectral Optoelectronics
Scanner for Oceanographic application.
OCM- Ocean Color Monitor for
Oceanographic application.
MSMR- Multi frequency Scanning
Microwave Radiometer. Passive type R.S
satellite

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
SAR- Synthetic Aperture Radar. Active
Microwave Sensor.
IRS-1A (1988)
IRS-1B (1991)
IRS-1E (1993)
IRS-P2 (1994)
IRS-1C (1995)- 5.8 meter Resolution
IRS-P3 (1996)

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
IRS-1D (1997)
IRS-P4 (1999)- OCEANSAT-1; Sun
synchronous Orbit with Best spatial
Resolution
TES (2001)- Technology experiment
Satellite, low orbit satellite system providing
clear earth images. Only available for Indian
army & used in Kargil (1999) War

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
IRS-P6- Also termed as Resourcesat-1,
Most advanced remote sensing satellite,
Highest resolution satellite
IRS-P5 Cartosat-1 , with 2.5 meter
resolution PAN Sensor
Cartosat-2 ; PAN Camera with 1 meter
resolution
Cartosat-2A;

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
RISAT-2; Radar Imaging Satellite System,
1st Active Remote Sensing Satellite of
India
Megha Tropiques- Combined study
program of France & India for Mansoon
study
GSAT

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
Kalpana-1 ; METSAT , First meteorological
satellite useful for weather forecasting
EDUSAT-1; First exclusive satellite for
education sector
HAMSAT; Micro satellite for providing
satellite based amateur radio service &
equipped with UHF/VHF band
communication

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education
SRE- Mission to recover space capsule.
Intended to test re-usable thermal
protection system, navigation, guidance,
control etc.
Chandrayan- Indias scientific mission to
the moon. Chandrayan-1 & Chandrayan-2
are members of this series

College of Engineering Pune (COEP)


Forerunners in Technical Education