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DIGITAL MODULATION TECHNIQUES

Presented By:
NIDHI BARANWAL
MCA 3rd SEMESTER
University of
Allahabad
WHAT IS MODULATION

Modulation = Adding information to a carrier signal


The sine wave on which the characteristics of the information
signal are modulated is called a carrier signal
CONTD.
MODULATION SYSTEMS
TYPES OF MODULATION

ANALOG MODULATION: If the variation


in the parameter of the carrier is
continuous in accordance to the input
analog signal the modulation technique
is termed as analog modulation scheme
DIGITAL MODULATION: If the variation
in the parameter of the carrier is discrete
then it is termed as digital modulation
technique
ANALOG MODULATION
DIGITAL MODULATION

In digital modulation , an analog carrier


signal is modulated by a discrete signal

Digital modulation can be considered as


digital-to-analog and the corresponding
demodulation as analog-to-digital
conversion

In digital communications, the modulating


wave consists of binary data and the
carrier is sinusoidal wave
DIGITAL MODULATION TECHNIQUES
AMPLITUDE SHIFT KEYING

In ASK, the amplitude of the signal is changed in


response to information and all else is kept fixed
Bit 1 is transmitted by a signal of one particular
amplitude. To transmit 0,we change the amplitude
keeping the frequency constant
FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING

In FSK, we change the frequency in response to


information
one particular frequency for a 1 and another
frequency for a 0
PHASE SHIFT KEYING

In PSK, we change the phase of the sinusoidal


carrier to indicate information. Phase in this
context is the starting angle at which the
sinusoidal starts
One phase change encodes 0 while another phase
change encodes 1.To transmit 0,we shift the phase
of the sinusoid by 180
M-ARY MODULATION TECHNIQUE

In binary data transmission, send only one of two


possible signals during each bit interval Tb
In M-ary data transmission, send one of M possible

signals during each signaling interval T


In almost all applications, M = 2n and T = nTb,

where n is an integer
Each of the M signals is called a symbol

These signals are generated by changing the

amplitude, phase, frequency, or combined forms


of a carrier.
Thus, we have: MASK MPSK MFSK MQAM
QUADRATURE PHASE SHIFT KEYING

Quadrature Phase Shift Keying can be


interpreted as two independent BPSK
systems , and thus the same
performance but twice the bandwidth
efficiency
The phase of the carrier takes on 1 of 4
equally spaced values
where each value of phase corresponds to
a unique pair of message bits
QUADRATURE AMPLITUDE MODULATION

If both the amplitude and the phase are


varied proportional to the information
signal, quadrature amplitude modulation
results.
Combination of phase shifting and
amplitude shifting
DIFFERENTIAL PHASE SHIFT KEYING

For the perfect detection of a phase


modulated signal, the receiver needs a
reference signal but if differential
encoding and phase shift keying are made
together at the transmitter the technique
is called as Differential Phase Shift Keying
For the transmission of a symbol 1, the
phase is unchanged whereas for
transmission of symbol 0, the phase of the
signal is changed by 180
CONTD..

In DPSK, the phase shift is with


reference to the previous bit
transmitted rather than to some
constant reference signal
METRICS FOR DIGITAL MODULATION

POWER EFFICIENCY
Power efficiency is a measure of how much signal power
should be increased to achieve a particular bit error rate
(BER) for a given modulation scheme
Ability of a modulation technique to preserve the fidelity of
the digital message at low power
Designer can increase noise immunity by increasing signal
power
BANDWIDTH EFFICIENCY
Ability to accomodate data within a limited bandwidth
Tradeoff between data rate and pulse width
Easy to implement and cost-effective to operate.
THANKS