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# DIGITAL MODULATION TECHNIQUES

Presented By:
NIDHI BARANWAL
MCA 3rd SEMESTER
University of
WHAT IS MODULATION

## Modulation = Adding information to a carrier signal

The sine wave on which the characteristics of the information
signal are modulated is called a carrier signal
CONTD.
MODULATION SYSTEMS
TYPES OF MODULATION

## ANALOG MODULATION: If the variation

in the parameter of the carrier is
continuous in accordance to the input
analog signal the modulation technique
is termed as analog modulation scheme
DIGITAL MODULATION: If the variation
in the parameter of the carrier is discrete
then it is termed as digital modulation
technique
ANALOG MODULATION
DIGITAL MODULATION

## In digital modulation , an analog carrier

signal is modulated by a discrete signal

## Digital modulation can be considered as

digital-to-analog and the corresponding
demodulation as analog-to-digital
conversion

## In digital communications, the modulating

wave consists of binary data and the
carrier is sinusoidal wave
DIGITAL MODULATION TECHNIQUES
AMPLITUDE SHIFT KEYING

## In ASK, the amplitude of the signal is changed in

response to information and all else is kept fixed
Bit 1 is transmitted by a signal of one particular
amplitude. To transmit 0,we change the amplitude
keeping the frequency constant
FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING

## In FSK, we change the frequency in response to

information
one particular frequency for a 1 and another
frequency for a 0
PHASE SHIFT KEYING

## In PSK, we change the phase of the sinusoidal

carrier to indicate information. Phase in this
context is the starting angle at which the
sinusoidal starts
One phase change encodes 0 while another phase
change encodes 1.To transmit 0,we shift the phase
of the sinusoid by 180
M-ARY MODULATION TECHNIQUE

## In binary data transmission, send only one of two

possible signals during each bit interval Tb
In M-ary data transmission, send one of M possible

## signals during each signaling interval T

In almost all applications, M = 2n and T = nTb,

where n is an integer
Each of the M signals is called a symbol

## amplitude, phase, frequency, or combined forms

of a carrier.
Thus, we have: MASK MPSK MFSK MQAM

## Quadrature Phase Shift Keying can be

interpreted as two independent BPSK
systems , and thus the same
performance but twice the bandwidth
efficiency
The phase of the carrier takes on 1 of 4
equally spaced values
where each value of phase corresponds to
a unique pair of message bits

## If both the amplitude and the phase are

varied proportional to the information
results.
Combination of phase shifting and
amplitude shifting
DIFFERENTIAL PHASE SHIFT KEYING

## For the perfect detection of a phase

modulated signal, the receiver needs a
reference signal but if differential
encoding and phase shift keying are made
together at the transmitter the technique
is called as Differential Phase Shift Keying
For the transmission of a symbol 1, the
phase is unchanged whereas for
transmission of symbol 0, the phase of the
signal is changed by 180
CONTD..

## In DPSK, the phase shift is with

reference to the previous bit
transmitted rather than to some
constant reference signal
METRICS FOR DIGITAL MODULATION

POWER EFFICIENCY
Power efficiency is a measure of how much signal power
should be increased to achieve a particular bit error rate
(BER) for a given modulation scheme
Ability of a modulation technique to preserve the fidelity of
the digital message at low power
Designer can increase noise immunity by increasing signal
power
BANDWIDTH EFFICIENCY
Ability to accomodate data within a limited bandwidth
Tradeoff between data rate and pulse width
Easy to implement and cost-effective to operate.
THANKS