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CHAPTER 6:

Video

Prepared for:

CSC 253 Interactive Multimedia


Najwa
Najwa Abd Ghafar
UiTM Johor

OVERVIEW OF THIS CHAPTER

In this chapter, you will learn about:


The use of digital video
How video works
Digital video containers
Obtaining video clips
Shooting and editing video
Najwa Abd Ghafar

VIDEO
UiTM Johor

Video:
Is a representation of moving visual images made
digitally or on videotape
Is an excellent tool for delivering multimedia
WHY? Give example:
When trying to learn a certain theory, people will
be more compelled to watch a video clip of
someone explaining the theory than reading a
paragraph of text containing the same theory
BUT,Oneit requires
high higher storage space
A one in memory
second high
andquality
higher
(1 transferring rate quality(30
image video
Megabyte
WHY? Megabyte
The number) of times each picture is replaced
) (30 images) p
second to create motion
Najwa Abd Ghafar

HOW VIDEO WORKS


UiTM Johor

When light is reflected from an object through


the cameras lens,
that light will be converted into an electronic
signal (analog/digital) by a
charge-coupled device (CCD)

. The electronic signal (video signal) contains the


following components:
HOW VIDEO WORKS
Najwa Abd Ghafar
UiTM Johor

3 Channels of Colour Information:


Each pixel of the video image will contain three
colour information, which are Red, Blue and Green
(RGB)
The quality of the video image will be higher if the
colour information in the signal is separated

Because there will be more RGB data stored in the


video

This will enhance the resolution of the camera,


therefore
the video image will be more detailed
For example:
1. Most consumer grade cameras:
Have 1 CCDs (A single chip will handle all 3
Najwa Abd Ghafar

HOW VIDEO WORKS


UiTM Johor

Synchronization Pulse (Sync):


Ensure that the video image is locked on a
video monitor vertically and horizontally
without any jitter or rolling for a STABLE video
A loss of sync pulses will cause video image
distortion, which include:
1. Jitter: Loss of vertical synchronization
2. Rolling: Loss of horizontal
synchronization
Najwa Abd Ghafar

ANALOG VIDEO
UiTM Johor

Analog Video:
Is captured and converted into analog signals
onto magnetic tapes
The resolution of analog video is measured
in the number of horizontal scan lines
(In the format of left-to-right and
top-to-bottom)
Each line represents continuous
measurements of the
colour and brightness along the horizontal
axis

How analog video is How analog video is


Najwa Abd Ghafar

ANALOG VIDEO
UiTM Johor

Analog Video:
The video signals produced by the CCD
will be recorded onto a magnetic tape
through helical scan recording
To record video signals, a spinning recording
head will change the magnetic properties of
the tapes surface

A series of long diagonal stripes


will be formed on the tape

Why is it called helical scan recording?


Because the head is tilted at a slight angle
compared to the path of the tape,
it will follow a spiral (helical) path
Najwa Abd Ghafar

ANALOG VIDEO
UiTM Johor

Each stripe represents the information for one field


of a video frame
Audio is recorded on a separate straight-line track
at the top of the videotape
Control track is recorded at the bottom of the
videotape, which contains the pulses used to
regulate speed.
This is used to:
Mark the beginning of each frame of video
Tracking:
Is the fine adjustment of the tape during playback
Najwa Abd Ghafar

ANALOG VIDEO
UiTM Johor

Analog Video:
There are several video standards in
managing analog video signals produced by
Higher qualitythe CCD:
video

1. Component Video:
The signal will transmit the colour
information into
3 separate channels (red, green and blue)
2. Separate Video (S-Video):
The signal will use 2 channels to transmit
the colour information (luminance and
chrominance)
Lower quality 3. Composite Video:
video
(Less-precise colour
The whole video signal will be transmitted
Najwa Abd Ghafar

DIGITAL VIDEO
UiTM Johor

Digital Video:
Is a representation of moving visual images in
the form of digital format
(in terms of bits)
Is made by using a Digital Video Camera
(which will capture moving images and converts
them into digital signals)
The video signals produced by the CCD will be:
1. Digitized by the camera into a sequence of
single frames
2. The audio and video data will be
compressed before they are digitally stored
(codec)
Codec:
Najwa Abd Ghafar

DIGITAL VIDEO
UiTM Johor

Digital Video:
Has replaced analog video as the method of
choice
for making and delivering video for multimedia

Analog video must be digitized before it can be


placed into a multimedia project
Why has Digital Video replaced Analog Video?
Digital videoqualitybegins and remains
digital:
No quality is lost when you copy your digital
video, where as analog video degrades with
each copy
Digitalvideo resolutionis higher than analog
Najwa Abd Ghafar

BROADCAST VIDEO STANDARD UiTM Johor

Broadcast Video Standards:


There are 4 broadcast and video standards
and recording formats commonly used around
the world, which are:
1. NTSC
2. PAL
3. SECAM
4. HDTV
These standards defines the way information
is encoded to produce electronic signals that
creates a television picture
Najwa Abd Ghafar

BROADCAST VIDEO STANDARD UiTM Johor

Analog Broadcast Video Standards:


1. National Television Standard Committee (NTSC):
Used in U.S., Canada, Mexico, Japan and many
other countries
It has a screen resolution of 525 horizontal scan
lines and a scan
rate of 30 frames per second (29.97 Hz)
2. Phase Alternate Line (PAL):
Used in U.K., Western Europe, Australia, South
Africa, China, South America
It has a screen resolution of 625 horizontal lines
and a scan rate of 25 frames per second (50 Hz)
3. Sequential Colour and Memory (SECAM):
Used in France, Eastern Europe and few other
Najwa Abd Ghafar

BROADCAST VIDEO STANDARD


UiTM Johor

Digital Broadcast Video Standard:


1. High Definition Television (HDTV):
Has an aspect ratio of 16:9 (known as
widescreen),
where as aspect ratio for traditional TV
(NTSC, PAL, SECAM) is 4:3
The resolution is high, which can be in the
following format:
1. 920 x 1080 interlaced format (1080i):
Used for high-end entertainment centres
2. 1280 x 720 progressive scan format
(720p):
Used for the computer industry
Najwa Abd Ghafar

DIGITAL VIDEO
UiTM Johor
Najwa Abd Ghafar

DISPLAYS
UiTM Johor

Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) Screen:


The screen will glow red, green or blue when hit
by an electron beam
As the electron beam scans across the screen,
the image will be displayed on the screen

Flat Screen Displays:


Are all digital
Is made using either liquid crystal display (LCD)

or plasma technologies
Najwa Abd Ghafar

INTERLACING AND PROGRESSIVE SCANS


UiTM Johor

Interlacing:
Is the process of building a single video
frame from two fields (odd and even fields)
The electron beam will make two passes on
the screen when drawing a video frame
This will help prevent flickers on CRT screens
Televisions uses interlaced scanning

Progressive Scan:
Is a process that involves drawing lines of
an entire video frame in a single pass without
interlacing and flickers
Computer monitors uses progressive scanning
Najwa Abd Ghafar

OVERSCAN AND SAFE TITLE AREA


UiTM Johor

Overscan:
Is the situation where not all of the televised
image is present on a viewing screen
The image is cropped, therefore you cant see
the outermost edges of the image

Full image on Overscan image


display on display
Najwa Abd Ghafar

OVERSCAN AND SAFE TITLE AREA


UiTM Johor

Underscan:
Is the situation where the image displayed is
smaller than the screens frame, thus leaving a
black bars around it
The black bars appear because the content was
filmed in a different proportion than your TV
screen

Full image on Underscan image


display on display
Najwa Abd Ghafar

OVERSCAN AND SAFE TITLE AREA


UiTM Johor

Safe Title Area:


It is advisable to scale the video within the
safe title area as shown below so that the
image will not be affected by overscanning
Najwa Abd Ghafar

DIGITAL VIDEO CONTAINERS UiTM Johor

Digital Video Container:


Will store the compressed audio and video data
May also include:
Metadata:
Important information about the tracks
contained in them
Additional media besides video and audio
Common containers for video are:
1. Ogg video (.ogg)
2. Flash video (.flv)
3. MPEG (.mp4)
4. Quicktime (.mov)
5. Windows Media Format (.wmv)
6. WebM (.webm)
Najwa Abd Ghafar

CODECS UiTM Johor

Codecs:
Is the algorithm used to compress a video into a
compatible digital format for delivery (encode)

Will then be decompressed for fast playback in


real time (decode)
Why is this important?
To digitize a video inside the computer will
require the transfer of
an enormous amount of data in a short amount
of time if it is not compressed

Is responsible in making and playing the video


file:
Without codecs, a video file cannot be played
by the computer
Najwa Abd Ghafar

CODECS UiTM Johor

MPEG Standards:
Stands for Moving Picture Experts Groups
The most widely recognized family of codecs is
based on MPEG standards
The video compression (codecs) standards
available for digital video and associated audio
include:
1. MPEG-1:
Deliver 1.2 Mbps of video and 250 Kbps of 2-
channel stereo audio for the use of CD-ROM
2. MPEG-2:
Requires higher data rates (3 to 15 Mbps),
which is used for
digital television (DTV) and making DVD
3. MPEG-4:
Najwa Abd Ghafar

VIDEO FORMAT CONVERTERS UiTM Johor

Conversion Software:
Is used to convert your video into multiple
formats
Allows you to change up the codecs for project
distribution
For example:
DVD video uses
MPEG-2 compression
Blu-ray video uses
MPEG-4 AVC compression
OBTAINING VIDEO CLIPS
Najwa Abd Ghafar
UiTM Johor

How can you obtain video clips for your multimedia


project?
1. Shoot new footage:
If you shoot your own video, you need to:
Have talent releases from the people who
appears or speak in your video
Have permissions for any audio effects or music
you use inside the video
2. Use pre-existing content for your video:
To acquiring footage that you do not own, you can
go to a stock footage house where you can:
. Purchase required footage (Due to licensing
rights)
. Use royalty-free footage (Usually have a lower
resolution)
Najwa Abd Ghafar

SHOOTING AND EDITING VIDEO UiTM Johor

Shooting Platform:
Use a steady shooting platform to avoid
shaky camera work.
How can you make the shooting platform
stable?
Use a tripod or place the camera on a
stable platform
What if you want to shoot handheld?
Use a camera that has an electronic
image stabilization feature for static
shoot
For example:
steady-cam balancing attachment
Najwa Abd Ghafar

SHOOTING AND EDITING VIDEO UiTM Johor

Audio:
Use an external microphone:
It gives you better audio than the
on-camera microphone

Camera:
Learn the features and controls of your
camera:
By studying the manual Learn
Practice
Need to know and decide the aspect ratio of
your video:
Because it is hard to convert between
aspect ratios

Najwa Abd Ghafar

SHOOTING AND EDITING VIDEO UiTM Johor

Produce blank Lose both


bars at top and sides of the
bottom image

Produce Lose the top Make people


empty pillars and bottom look wider
SHOOTING AND EDITING VIDEO
Najwa Abd Ghafar
UiTM Johor

Storyboarding:
Is carried out to plan out your video
Helps your project team members to
understand your production idea
Najwa Abd Ghafar

SHOOTING AND EDITING VIDEO UiTM Johor

Lighting:
Lighting can make a major difference
between amateur and professional shooting
Always strive for adequate lighting
A standard studio lighting arrangement
includes:
Fill Light
Main /Key Light
Rim Light
Background Light
Najwa Abd Ghafar

SHOOTING AND EDITING VIDEO UiTM Johor

Chroma Keys:
Allows you to choose a colour or a range of
colours that will
become transparent
This allows us to superimpose subjects over
different backgrounds
Tools that can be used include:
Blue screen / Green screen
Ultimatte / Chroma key editing
Najwa Abd Ghafar

SHOOTING AND EDITING VIDEO UiTM Johor

Composition:
Consider the delivery medium when composing
shots:
Avoid wide panoramic shots:
For playback from CD-ROM or the web in
small computer window
Consider the amount of motions that are in the
shot:
The more scene changes from frame to
frame

The more information need to be


transferred from the computer memory to
the screen
Unless you have a very good compression
Najwa Abd Ghafar

SHOOTING AND EDITING VIDEO UiTM Johor

Composition:
Beware of excessive backlight:
This can occur when you are shooting
with a window or bright sky in the
background
To fix this, you can light the
foreground subject

Adjust the white balance:


White balance will correct for
bluish, orange or greenish colour
casts on the video
Najwa Abd Ghafar

SHOOTING AND EDITING VIDEO UiTM Johor

Titles and Text:


Are often used to:
Introduce a video and its content
Finish off a video and provide credits
When using titles and text in a video, you
should:
Use plain, sans serif fonts and bold enough
to be easily read
Choose colours wisely
For example: Use light coloured text against
a dark background
Use drop shadow on text to help separate
from background image
Do not kern the letters too tightly
Leave titles on screen long enough so that
Najwa Abd Ghafar

SHOOTING AND EDITING VIDEO UiTM Johor

Nonlinear Editing:
Simple-editing software:
Can be used when your project
only requires simple editing
of footage, such as:
Cutting footage
Applying simple transitions
Inserting text and titles
Usually comes free with your operating system
Such as:
Microsofts Windows Live Maker
Apples iMovie
Najwa Abd Ghafar

SHOOTING AND EDITING VIDEO UiTM Johor

Nonlinear Editing:
High-end software:
Are features packed
Can be expensive
Such as:
Adobes Premiere
Apples Final Cut
Avids Media Composer
Sony Vegas Pro
Requires many hours of training and
experiences before users can become
proficient
Najwa Abd Ghafar

SHOOTING AND EDITING VIDEO UiTM Johor

Nonlinear Editing:
Never re-edit a video that has been edited

Because video codecs are lossy:


So every time you finalize a file
This is known
as generation
The file will be less true than the loss
original material