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# Module no.

5
Contents:
Ohms Law

Topic Objectives:

## To state the principle of Ohms Law

To illustrate the Ohms Law wheel.
To solve problems using the principle of Ohms
Law
OHMS LAW WHEEL

http://www.sengpielaudio.com/calculator-ohm.h
OHMS LAW derived from the equation for all
(George Simon Ohm) physical systems

EFFECT = CAUSE
OPPOSITION

## EFFECT = flow of charge (current)

CAUSE = pressure (voltage)
OPPOSITION = resistance

E (amperes, A) E = I R (volts, V)
I =
R
E
R = (ohms, )
I
Circuit Application
VR E
I = =
R R
I
E R VR

Note:
For any resistor, in any network, the direction of cu
through a resistor will define the polarity of the volt
drop across the resistor.
- VR +
+ VR -

R I
I R
Module no.6
Contents:
Resistors in Series Connection
Kirchhoffs Voltage Law (KVL)

Topic Objectives:

## To explain the meaning of series connection

To show different ways resistors can be
connected in
series
To introduce the Kirchhoffs Voltage Law (KVL)
To apply KVL in dealing with parallel
connections of circuit
RESISTORS IN SERIES R1

R2 +
I R1 E _ R2

B A
R1

+ I
E _ R2

R3
Resistors can be connected in series, that is, the current
through them one after another.

Since there is only one path for the current to travel, the
current through each of the resistor is the same!
Identifying Series Connections

## A series connection provides only one path for current be

two points in a circuit so that the same current flow throu
each series resistor.

B
A A A -
+ + +

B B B A
- +
- -
Connect all the resistors in series from R1 to R5 using A to
path.
(a) R1 (b)
R4
A
A R2
R4 R1
R3
B
R2 R5

R3

R5
(c) (d)
B R1 R4 A R4

A R2

R3 R2 R1 R5
R5
R3
B
B
Effect of Connecting Resistors in Series

## A The total resistance of a serie

10 30 100 connection is equal to the sum
RT
of the resistances of each
B individual resistor.

RT = R1 + R2 + R3 + .
+ RN
= 30 + 10 + 100

RN = 140
Applying OHMS LAW in series Circuits
Ex.1
+V1- +V2- +V3-
a
+ R1 =10 R2 =30 R3 =100 RT
E 140
_ 8.4V
IS b

E 8.4V
Is = R = = 0.06A
T 140 Same current flowing
through each resistor
Is =
60mA
Note:
The polarity of the voltage across a resistor is
determined by the direction of the current!
+V- -V+ -
V 10
10 10 +

V1 = IsR1 V3 = IsR3
= (60mA)(10) = (60mA)(100
V1 = 0.6V V3 = 6V
V2 = IsR2
= (60mA)(30)
V2 = 1.8V
Ex.2 +V1- Determine:
a) RT
+ I R1=2 -
20V _ R2=1 V2 b) Is
R3=5 + c) Voltage across
each resistor
-V3+
Ex.3 -V2+

R1=7 R2=4
_ Determine V2
50V+ R3=7

R4=7
Power Distribution in Series Circuits
+V1- +V2- +V3-
since
+ IS R 1 R2 R3
E _
RT V 2
P1 = V1 Is = I R1 = 1
s
2

R1
Therefore:
PT = E Is PT = P 1 + P 2 + P 3 Check using Example

Ex.4 R R2
1
Determine:
a) RT
1k 3k
b) Is
R3 2k c) Voltage across each resistor
50V
d) Power supplied by the battery
e) Power dissipated by each
resistor
f) Check if (d) and (e) are equal
KIRCHHOFFS VOLTAGE LAW (KVL)
- The algebraic sum of the potential rises and drops
around a closed path (or loop) is zero.

Symbol : V =0
+V1-
a
b APPLYING KVL:
R1
+ + +E V1 V2
E _ R2
V2
KVL =0
- E = V 1 + V2
d c

## - The applied voltage of a series dc circuit will equal the

of the voltage drops of the circuit.
Symbol : Vrises =
Vdrops
Ex.5 +V1- +4.2V-

R1 R2
+ + Determine V1
E1 _ 16 E2 _ 9V
V

Ex.6
+ 12V - + 6V -

R1
+ R
+ 2 +
Determine Vx
E 32 Vx R3 14
- V _V
-

Ex.7

- 15V +

R3 Determine
I2 -
- a) V2 using KVL
54 R2 7 V2
E b)I2
+ V +
R1 c) R1 and R3

+ 18V -
VOLTAGE DIVISION PRINCIPLE
(For Series Circuit Application)
+ 12V -

R1= 6
+ +
E 20V R2 = 3 6V
_
-
R3 = 1

- 2V +

Note:
The voltage across series resistive elements will d
as the magnitude of resistance levels.
In other words:
LARGER RESISTANCE = MORE VOLTAGE
THE VOLTAGE DIVIDER PRINCIPLE
The voltage across a resistor in a series circuit is equal t
Value of that resistor times the total applied voltage.
IT +V1-
RT = R 1 + R 2
+ RT R1 I1
I2 +
E R2
E
V2 IT = I 1 = I 2 =
- RT
_

E
since, V1 = I1 R1 = (R1)
RT
therefore, E
V2 = R (R2)
T
Ex.8 Using Voltage divider principle, determine voltage
V1, V3, and V

+
R1 2 V1
_
+
+ V
_
E 60V R2 5
-
+
R3 8 V_3
PASSIVE LINEAR CIRCUITS
Circuit Symbols of:

## Independent Voltage Source Independent AC Current Source

http://www.swarthmore.edu/NatSci/echeeve1/Ref/E72WhaKnow/WhaKnow.html
INDEPENDENT SOURCES
A voltage source is any device or
system that produces an
electromotive force between its
terminals. A primary voltage
source can supply (or absorb)
energy to a circuit.

## A current source is an electrical

or electronic device that delivers
or absorbs electric current.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Current_source
DEPENDENT SOURCES

## Current dependent voltage source

http://www.swarthmore.edu/NatSci/echeeve1/Ref/E72WhaKnow/WhaKnow.html
Voltage Current Controlled Voltage Controlled Current Battery
Source Source Source Source of cells
Other Electrical symbols

http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/phys/Class/circuits/u9l4a.html
DEPENDENT SOURCES

A B

i
+ +
5V C 10 i
_ _

## Fig. 1.14 The source on the right-hand side is a current

controlled voltage source.