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Introduction to

Petroleum
Production
Engineering
Ref.1: Brill & Beggs, Two Phase Flow in Pipes, 6th
Edition, 1991. Chapter 2.
Ref.2: Guo, Lyon & Ghalambor, Petroleum Production
Engineering, Elsevier Science & Technology, 2007,
Chapter 1&2.
Introduction

A complete oil or gas


production system
consists of a reservoir,
well, flowline, separators,
pumps, and transportation
pipelines.
Introduction
A reservoir is a porous and permeable underground
formation containing an individual bank of hydrocarbons
confined by impermeable rock or water barriers and is
characterized by a single natural pressure system.

Hydrocarbon accumulations are classified as oil, gas


condensate, and gas reservoirs.

Gas wells: GOR >100,000 scf/stbo Compositional model


Gas condensate wells: 5,000<GOR< 100,000 scf/stbo
Oil wells: GOR< 5,000 scf/stbo Black oil model
Black Oil Model
Gas Oil Ratio
Solution GOR is defined as the amount of gas (in
standard condition) that will dissolve in unit volume of
oil when both are taken down to the reservoir at the
prevailing pressure and temperature; that is,
Gas volume in standard conditions (scf )
Rs
Oil volume in stock tank conditions (stbo)
standard condition is 14.7 psia and 60 oF

Rs remains constant at pressures above bubble-point


pressure. It drops as pressure decreases in the pressure
range below the bubble-point pressure.
Black Oil Model
Gas Oil Ratio
Lasater correlation (recommended for oAPI>15):
P (psia ) gd
1. Calculate gd is sp. gr. of dissolved gas at sc.
T (o R )
2. Obtain yg from Figure 2.2.

3. Obtain Mo from Figure 2.1.

4. Calculate (379.3)(350) o y g
Rs C

Mo 1 yg
C is the tuning parameter (default value of C is 1.0).
Black Oil Model
Gas Oil Ratio

Standing correlation (recommended for oAPI<15):

Calculate

1.2048
P(psia ) 10
0.0125 oAPI
Rs gd 0.00091T ( o F )
C
18 10

C is the tuning parameter (default value of C is 1.0).


Black Oil Model
Oil Formation Volume Factor
Oil formation volume factor is defined as:
Oil volume in reservoir conditions (bbl)
Bo
Oil volume in stock tank conditions (stbo)
Bo is always greater than unity.

At a given reservoir temperature, Bo remains nearly


constant at pressures above bubble-point pressure. It
drops as pressure decreases in the pressure range below
the bubble point pressure.
Black Oil Model
Oil Formation Volume Factor

Standing correlation:
1.175
gd
0.5

Bo 0.972 0.000147 Rs 1.25 T ( F)
o
C
o

C is the tuning parameter (default value of C is 0.0).


Black Oil Model
Oil Density Free gas: mgf (lbm)
Dissolved gas: Vgd (scf)
Dissolved gas density:
gd (lbm/scf) = gd (0.0764)
Res. Cond.: P, T S.C.
Free gas: mgf (lbm) P =14.73 psia
Oil: Fo (bbl) T = 60 oF
Density: o (lbm/ft3)

Oil: Lo (stbo)
Oil density:
Lo (lbm/scf) = o (62.4)

Mass Balance: mgf 5.614 Fo o mgf Vgd gd 5.614 Lo Lo


Fig. 2.18

o
V gd Lo gd 5.614 Lo
o
0.0136 Rs gd 62.4 o
5.614 Fo Lo Bo
Black Oil Model
Specific Gravity of Free Gas
Gas Mass Balance:
Total produced gas at s.c. = Dissolved gas + Free gas

R p Lo 0.0764 gt Rs Lo 0.0764 gd R p Rs Lo 0.0764 gf

R p gt Rs gd 0.56 gf gt
gf ,
R p Rs 0.56 gd and gt gd
Where Rp is the produced Gas Oil Ratio (Rp Rs).
Black Oil Model
Oil Viscosity
1- Viscosity of saturated oil (Beggs and Robinson):

A- Dead oil viscosity (P =1.0 atm)


( 3.0324 0.02023 oAPI )
10
OD 10 1, X
X
, T oF
T 1.163
B- Live oil viscosity

10.715 5.44
o (cp) A ,B
A , B
OD
Rs 100 0.515
Rs 150 0.338
Black Oil Model
Oil Viscosity
2- Viscosity of undersaturated oil (Vazquez):
m
P 2.6 P1.187
o ob , m
3.910 5 P 5.0
Pb 10
Procedure for calculating Pb:
Assume Pb=P and calculate Rs (from Standing or Lasater)

If Rs>Rp the oil is undersaturated, otherwise the oil is saturated

For undersaturated oil, assume Rs=Rp

Calculate Pb from Standing or Lasater correlation.


Black Oil Model
Oil Viscosity
Standing Correlation:
A- Dead oil viscosity (P =1.0 atm)
A 8.33
1.8 10 7
360 0.43 o
OD 0.32 o 4.53
, A 10 API

T ( F) 200
o
API
B- Saturated oil viscosity

o (cp) 10 a OD
b
, a Rs 2.2 10 7 Rs 7.4 10 4
0.68 0.25 0.062
b 8.62105 R 1.10103 R 3.74103 R
10
C- Undersaturated oil
s
10
viscosity s
10 s

o ob 0.001( P Pb ) 0.024 ob
1.6
0.38 ob
0.56

Black Oil Model
Gas-Oil Surface Tension
Baker and Swerdloff correlation:

1- Dead oil surface tension (OD): An estimate of oil surface


tension at atmospheric pressure, can be obtained from Figure 2.37.

Note: Extrapolation beyond the temperature rang of [68 oF 100 oF]


is not recommended.

2- Live oil surface tension (O): The surface tension of crude oil
containing dissolved gas expressed as a percent of OD can be
obtained from Figure 2.38.
Black Oil Model
Free Gas Density
1- Engineering Equation of state:
P M gf
P V z n R T gf
z RT

P gf 29
M gf M air gf gf
10.72 z T

lbm 2.70 gf P(psia )


gf 3 o
ft z T ( R)
Black Oil Model
Free Gas Density
2- Gas formation volume factor (Bg):
z n RT
o
V P 0. 0283 z T ( R)
Bg
Vsc z sc n R Tsc P (psia )
Psc
gf sc airsc gf
gf
Bg Bg

lbm 0.0764 gf
gf 3
ft Bg
Black Oil Model
Free Gas Compressibility Factor
1- Standing and Katz correlation: T T , P P , Figure 2.21
pr pr
Tpc Ppc
2- Brill and Beggs correlation:
z A (1 A) e B C PprD

A 1.39(Tpr 0.92) 0.5 0.36T pr 0.1

0.066 2 0.32 Ppr6


B (0.62 0.23T pr ) Ppr 0.037 Ppr 9(T pr 1)
T pr 0.86 10

C 0.132 0.32 log10 (T pr )

2
( 0.3106 0.49 T pr 0.1824 T pr )
D 10
Black Oil Model
Free Gas Pseudocritical Properties
1- Brown et al. correlation: Figure 2.20
Valid for H2S < 3%, N2 < 5%, and total content of inorganic
compounds less than 7%.

Ppc (psia ) 709.604 58.718 gf


T pc ( o R ) 170.491 307.344 gf

2- Ahmed correlation:

Ppc (psia ) 678 50( gf 0.5) 206.7 y N 2 440 yCO2 606.7 y H 2 S


Tpc ( o R ) 326 315.7( gf 0.5) 240 y N 2 83.3 yCO2 133.3 y H 2 S
Black Oil Model
Free Gas Viscosity
1- Carr et al. correlation:

A- Gas viscosity at atmospheric pressure (1): Figure 2.35


Valid for 40 < T(oF) < 400

B- Viscosity ratio (/1): Figure 2.36


Valid for 1.0 < Ppr < 20.0

C- Free gas viscosity:



gf (cp) 1
1
Black Oil Model
Free Gas Viscosity
2- Lee et al. correlation:

gf (cp) 110 4 K exp X gf( 2.40.2 X )

(9.4 0.02 M gf )T 1.5


K
209 19 M gf T

986
X 3.5 0.01 M gf
T
gr 0.0433 gf P (psia )
Where T R and gf
o
3
o
cm z T ( R)
Black Oil Model
Water (Brine) Density
A- Water formation volume factor (Bw):
Figure 2-13 Figure 2-14
Bw B y Bw
'
w

Figure 2-11
B- Water density (w):

wsc Figure 2-19


w
Bw
Black Oil Model
Water Viscosity

A- Viscosity of pure water (Van Wingen correlation):

w : Figure 2.32

B- Viscosity of brine (Frick correation):

w (cp) = w Ratio , Ratio: Figure 2.33


Compositional Model
The critical properties of components that are usually found in gas
and gas condensate wells are shown in this Table.

The components that are heavier than n-Hexane are usually shown
as a pesudocomponent (C7+).

For calculating the properties of gas and gas condensate wells, the
compositional model is recommended.

Many gas or gas condensate wells exhibit retrograde condensation,


phenomena in which condensation occurs during pressure
reduction (shaded region within the two-phase envelope of Figure).
Compositional Model
Flash Calculation
Free gas flowrate: V
Composition: yi

Res. Cond.: P, T Equilibrium


Composition: Zi Flash
for i = 1, , n Ki = yi / xi
Mole flowrate: F

Condensate flowrate: L
Composition: xi

At equilibrium : f i v f i l
By definition : f i v yi Piv , f i l xi Pil
yi il
Therefore : Ki v SRK or PR
xi i
Compositional Model
Gas and Liquid Density
Once the compressibilities of each phase is determined, the gas
and liquid densities can be determined from:

n
P MV
V , M V yi M i
ZV R T i 1

n
P ML
L , M L xi M i
ZLRT i 1

Other properties can be calculated based on the composition of


liquid and gas phases (GPSA, Engineering Data Book, 11th edition,
1998, Chapter 23).
Compositional Model
Pesudocomponents
If you like to use compositional model for oil wells, the oil
must defined as some pesudocomponents based on
distillation curve.
There are several methods of measuring and reporting
distillation curves of crude oil and petroleum fractions:
1- ASTM D 86
2- True Boiling Point (TBP)
3- Simulated Distillation by GC (ASTM D 2887)
4- Equilibrium Flash Vaporization (EFV)
5- Distillation at Reduced Pressures (ASTM D 1160)