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TEMA 4

YIELD MANAGEMENTUL
FACTOR DE
INTERNAIONALIZARE A
FIRMELOR DE TURISM
4.1. Yield managementul i locul su n firma de
turism
4.2. Aplicabilitatea yield managementului n
industria turismului
2.3. Obstacole n aplicarea practic a Y.M.
reprezint o concepie, un mod de abordare a
maximizrii profitului pe baza urmririi atente a evoluiei
preurilor i tarifelor i de stabilire a acestora, avndu-se
n vedere vnzrile i disponibilitile reale ale firmei.

Prin aplicarea Y.M. se urmrete


determinarea valorii celei mai ridicate a
tarifului care poate fi cerut n limita
costurilor i capacitilor disponibile i,
totodat, garantarea faptului c toi acei
clieni doritori s beneficieze de un anume
produs sau serviciu sunt i dispui s
plteasc tariful i s o poat face.
an economic technique to calculate the best
pricing policy for optimizing profits generated by the Burr (2002)
sale of a product or service, based on real-time
modeling and forecasting of demand behavior.
a discriminatory pricing procedure which involves
Nagle and Holden
setting different prices for different segments of the
(1995)
market so as to maximize revenue gained.
the process of allocating the right capacity
or inventory unit to the right customer at the Kimes (1997)
right price and at the right time so as to
maximize revenue or yield.

a method of controlling inventory and the objective Murtach and Mitra


is to maximize expected return. (2002)

Source: Authors selection based on scholars definitions


Table 5 Automated Y.M. systems existing on the market
Inventory
Traffic control
Revenue
management managem
ent
Pricing and
revenue
Overbooki optimization
ng

Discoun
Nesting
t
allocatio
n
Gradul de aplicabilitate a Y.M. n diferitele
sectoare ale industriei turistice este diferit, n
funcie i de nivelurile la care poate fi adoptat.

Tabelul 2.1. Nivelul si gradul de aplicabilitate ale Y.M. n turism


Tabel 2.2. Nivelul si gradul de aplicabilitate
ale Y.M. n sectorul hotelier
Hotel revenue break down
Therefore we maximize revenue in hotel by
Requirements of Yield
1. Pricing Management

How to price their product? 1. Good data


2. Inventory allocation 2. Ability to segment markets
What we put on shelves? 3. Perishable inventory
4. Ability to sell in advance
3. Selling strategy
5. Low marginal sales cost
How to sell the product ? 6. Booking pattern data
7. Excellent management
information system(MIS)
8. Customized softwares & system
like Oracle, Fidelio
9. Ability to fence customer
segments
10.An overbooking policy
JW Marriot Bucharest hotel have 402 guest rooms in current period and
an occupancy degree of 58% with a potential average rate of 670 RON
and a effective average rate (actual) of 600 RON. The marginal cost is
70 RON. Managers assume that that for the occupancy degree to reach
the value of 66%, the average price should drop to 530. Also, managers
assume that if the occupancy degree will bump to 80% then the average
price decrease at 435.

Should be implemented these strategies to


reduce rates?
Tabel 1. Computing the yield

Effective income
Occupancy
Contribution from Yield
Scenario degree
margin (RON) accommodation ( %)
(%)
( RON)
1 58 600 140.000 51.9
2 66 530 140.000 51.9
3 80 435 140.000 51.9

Tabel 2. Computing net income from


accommodation

Number of sold Contribution margin Total margin


Scenario rooms (RON) (RON)
1 2 1*2
1 58% * 402 = 233 600 70 = 530 123.490
2 66% * 402 = 265 530 70 = 460 121.900
3 80% * 402 = 322 435 70 = 365 117.530
RESTAURANT REVENUE MANAGEMENT
The principles of revenue management Using RevPASH allows managers to
can be applied to restaurants, given that capture more of the restaurant's
the restaurant's unit of sale is the time actual performance in their analysis
it takes for a complete meal cycle, than does average check or typical
rather than just the meal itself. food- or laborcost percentages.
Moreover, restaurants have classic
characteristics that invite revenue-
management strategies (those
characteristics being relatively fixed
capacity, perishable inventory, a demand
inventory, time-variable demand,
appropriate cost structure, and
segmentable customers).
When a restaurant's operation is gauged
by the time-related measure called
revenue per available seat-hour, or
RevPASH, managers can analyze
operations and menus to improve that
statistic.
RESTAURANT REVENUE MANAGEMENT
Restaurateurs have available two
general sets of strategic levers to build Typically, this means adjusting menus
RevPASH, which is the goal of to offer discounts and specials that,
restaurant revenue management. while they offer more value to the
customer, may well make as strong a
Those key levers are duration
contribution to revenue as other,
management and demandbased
higher-price menu items that cost more
pricing. Pricing approaches involve
to serve.
setting prices according to customers'
demand characteristics, such as That is the province of menu
whether they are willing to dine off engineering.
peak or whether they are not as
concerned about price as they are
about the dining experience.
Pricing strategies must be approached
carefully to avoid the appearance that
the restaurant seeks to gain at the
expense of customers (which
customers view as unfair).
KENTUCKY FRIED CHINA AND MCFOREIGN
POLICY - FAST FOOD RESTAURANTS
OVERSEAS
Kentucky Fried China and McForeign Policy ---the bright side of
American fast food overseas Fast food has long been defined as
processed and frozen food in the Western world, especially in the U.S.
People refer fast food as burgers purchased from a fast food restaurant
such as Carls JR., Burger King, and McDonalds.
Microwaveable frozen food such as Hot Pockets, frozen pizza, and
quick meals are also considered as fast food.
However, in most of the Eastern countries, fast food has a different
meaning. It can be best described as quick service meal. For instance, in
China, when people talk about fast food, they usually refer to the A box-
meal, which can be purchased from a restaurant counter with various
newly cooked dishes served in white lunch boxes, or sometimes
served on a tray with several dishes, rice and soup on top.
Besides from rice-based quick meals, local lamp soup () shops,
noodle restaurants, and dumpling outlets are also considered as fast food
restaurants.
In Japan, fast food is classified as traditional Japanese cuisine.
RESTAURANT REVENUE MANAGEMENT
Duration management helps Although a restaurateur cannot directly
restaurateurs gain control of the most control the customer's use of a table,
erratic aspect of their operation, which is careful process control and analysis
the length of time customers sit at a can make the restaurant's operations
table (including the rate at which (including menu design, kitchen
customers will arrive to occupy that operation, and service procedures) as
table). effective as possible for moving the
meal along, and perhaps indicating to
Among the tactics available for duration
the customer when it is time to leave.
management are reducing the
uncertainty of arrival, reducing the
uncertainty of duration, and reducing
the time between meals. Whether the
restaurant accepts reservations or
serves customers as they arrive, its
manager needs to have a sense of
when customers are most likely to
appear. That is a matter of creating a
forecast based on the restaurant's
history and of carefully managing
reservations (if the restaurant
accepts them).
WHY CAN AMERICA NOT JUST
ELIMINATE FAST FOOD RESTAURANTS?
The term fast-food has always If that were to take place, there
had a negative connotation would be multiple positive outcomes;
and most people associate one is that many Americans would
unhealthy with it, while get healthier and, America would
others even attach lazy, probably not be considered the
especially when it is a busy unhealthiest country in the world.
mother buying dinner for the
kids on her way home from Now the ads for fast food
work or a dad who buys his restaurants are made just to lure
children a quick lunch between people into the restaurant no matter
softball and soccer practices. if they are true or false.
What does this have to do The establishment of fast food
with getting rid of fast food or it actually started in the 1950s and
being unhealthy? many different chains exploded
Would it not make sense for across the United States during the
the government to close all 1960s.
fast-food restaurants so Now in the year 2008, most
America can get healthier? people rely on fast food for a
quick meal or snack.
THE SKINNY ON OBESITY
Due to the intensified daily routine of everyday life and the obscured
image of healthy bodies, obesity has become an overwhelming
problem in American Society.
The crazy lifestyles that are being led leave Americans no room for
getting into shape and lack the confidence needed to do so from the
unrealistic view of healthy bodies in todays media.
Traditionally, breakfast has been deemed the most important meal of
the day, and is served with a balance of grains, fruits, dairy, and protein.
The typical breakfast table in America now consists of have high-sugar
low-nutrition foods such as sugary cereals and juices, greasy bacon
and eggs, and microwavable fast foods.
In the early morning rush to get out of the door and on the way to either
work or school, breakfast is often skipped or substituted with quick
meals.
These on-the-go foods include Pop-Tarts, donuts, bagels, the like.
Often breakfast is skipped simply because Americans are not hungry in the
morning or not enough time.
Tabel 2.3. Nivelul si gradul de aplicabilitate
ale Y.M. in sectorul tour-operator
Forecasts update to account
Selling system Optimization
for:
compares
*recent trends
Revised capacity vs.
*natural reduction over time
Available capacity
*price changes

Price
chang
Bookings come in
YMS es
sent

Flight capacity left


Room capacity left Selling system
Source: Personal approach on Thomas Cook annual report (2009) and TUI travel annual report
(2009)
Tabel 2.4. Nivelul i gradul de aplicabilitate ale
Y.M. n sectorul transporturilor aeriene
Business class
Economy plus class
Economy class

Source: personal approach based on Kostas, I. & Oretti, M. (2007), Airline choices for the
future: From alliances to mergers, Ashgate Publishing Limited, USA, pp. 73
A Brief History of Flight
Yield management is an approach to
The less obvious response was the
maximizing revenue when a business has a introduction of yield management,
which gradually brought a level of
fixed, perishable resource and can segment sophistication and a data-driven pricing
customers into groups willing to pay model that yielded a 3-8% revenue
improvement, according to industry
different prices for the same resource. In analysts.
airlines, a seat is perishable as the revenue Yield management quickly spread to
the hotel, car rental and other
potential disappears once the flight has industries.
flown. Simply stated, the airlines want to sell
the right seat to the right passenger
In the mid-1980s, the highly regulated airline at the right time at the right price.
industry was relatively unsophisticated about
Doing so requires sophisticated
how to price its main product, seats, until algorithms which account for capacity
utilization, route scheduling, fuel prices,
Peoples Express burst onto the scene. competitive pricing and the like.
Peoples low fares quickly gained customers
and market share. The big airlines took notice All those yield management
algorithms are whats behind the
and responded in two waysone obvious and minute-to-minute price changes
happening every time you book a
one less so. American Airlines responded with flight.
deep discount Supersaver fares, essentially
matching Peoples on key routes. This was the
obvious response.
YIELD MANAGEMENTUL PE CANALELE DE DISTRIBUIE N
TURISM
Concepie i design: Sptaru Alexandru-Bogdan, absolvent 2010 al cursului de master Management i
Marketing n turism avnd tema de disertaie SPECIFICITATEA DISTRIBUIEI PRODUSULUI TURISTIC
PRIN TELEFONIA MOBIL

Plata rezervrii
GDS Furnizori de
Plata produse
distribuie turistice
i

Vnzare
Distribuito
ri locali ai INTERNET direct
GDS Cel mai
Plata Plata bun pre
stimulrilo suportul
r pentru ui tehnic Vnzarea serviciului
activitate de intermediere CLIENT

Agenii (individual/
de turism business)

Plata serviciului
Sistemul de distribuie n turism
YIELD MANAGEMENTUL SI CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP
MANAGEMENT
(Concepie i design: Sptaru Alexandru-Bogdan, absolvent 2010 al cursului de master Management i Marketing n
turism avnd tema de disertaie SPECIFICITATEA DISTRIBUIEI PRODUSULUI TURISTIC PRIN TELEFONIA
MOBIL

Creterea Profitabilitii
CLIENT
Creterea Venitului

Creterea Satisfaciei
Clienilor

CRM Creterea
CRM nu doar
Volumului
RELAI Manageme Tranzaciilor
E nt
Componentele CRM
CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT
Concepie i design: Sptaru Alexandru-Bogdan, absolvent 2010 al cursului de master Management i
Marketing n turism avnd tema de disertaie SPECIFICITATEA DISTRIBUIEI PRODUSULUI TURISTIC
PRIN TELEFONIA MOBIL

Principiile CRM
a. Tratai clienii
individual!
b. Ctigai i meninei
loialitatea cumprtorului
prin relaia personal!
c. Selectai clienii buni
n locul celor ri
bazndu-v pe valoarea
pe via a clienilor!
Sursa: (Hagen, Manning, &
Souza, 2003)
American Airlines Hertz Rent a Car
Marriott
Unix System OS System
Acce Windows Based System
Access Codes

ss C o d es
o des ssC
cc e
A

GDS
Common Platform (eg. SABRE)
MOTIVAII ALE IMPLEMENTRII UNUI SISTEM
CRM N DOMENIUL TURISMULUI
Concepie i design: Sptaru Alexandru-Bogdan, absolvent 2010 al cursului de master
Management i Marketing n turism avnd tema de disertaie SPECIFICITATEA DISTRIBUIEI
PRODUSULUI TURISTIC PRIN TELEFONIA MOBIL

n vnzri, este nevoie de o medie de 8 pn la 10 contactri


telefonice pentru a realiza o vnzare i ntre 2 i 3 telefoane pentru a
realiza o vnzare unui client fidel.

Un client nemulumit povestete experiena la 8 pn la 10 persoane.

Dup principiul Pareto, se presupune c 20% dintre companii


genereaz 80% din profituri.

O cretere de 5% a fidelizrii clienilor se transform


ntr-o cretere a profitului cu 25%.
Studii de caz
Citii, comentai, actualizai urmtoarele studii de caz

1.Yield Manangement la AMERICAN


AIRLINES

2.Yield Management la British Airways

3.Yield Management la EasyJet

4.Yield Management-ul unei Aliane: Air France


KLM
ntrebri recapitulative
1. Prezentai aplicarea conceptului de yield management n cadrul
societilor transnaionale de turism.
2. Identificai i analizai factorii care influeneaz negativ aplicarea
conceptului de yield management n turism.
3. Prezentai i analizai factorii de aplicabilitate a yield
managementului n domeniul hotelier.
4. Identificai indicatorii ce msoar aplicabilitatea Yield
managementului pentru lanurile de restaurant.
5. Care sunt dezavantajele conceptului de yield management?