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# Mechanical Vibration

BMCM 3743

Chapter 6:

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra
Why?
To achieve acceptable level of vibration

## *ISO gives a standard; ISO 2372 (BS

4675)
*Each company has their own standard
Class I: Individual
part of machine (<15
kW).

## Class II: medium size

machine (15-75 kW).

machine on rigid
foundation.

machine on soft
foundation.

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra
How to control the vibration?

## 1. Control vibration at source.

Best but difficult. Possible at early design stage (str
2. Modify transmission path.
Isolator: optimum stiffness and damping.
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra
From Chapter 3, two cases to control the transmission p

## What forces are transmitted What forces (displacement) a

through supports to transmitted through support
the surrounding structure? the surrounding structure?

Fe e jt
Receiver X t e j t
Source (sensitiv
e
(machine m instrume
m
, engine)
nt)
Isolator
Xe jt Isolator
k c k c
(suppor
t)
(suppor
t)
X e e j t
Source
Receiv
er Ft e jt (earthquake, rough
(floor) Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra
VIBRATION
ISOLATION

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra
Transmissibilit
y

1 j 2 / n
T
1 / n j 2 / n
2
X t e j t

1 (2 / n ) 2 m
T
1 /
n
2 2
2 / n
2

c X e j t
k e

Source
(earthquake,
1 4 2 r 2
T with r
1 r 2 2
4 2r 2 n

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra
Example design
problem

## Design an isolator to hold a 3 kg electronics module

to be less then 5 mm deflection.

m

## Task: Choose an isolator with the

best k and c.
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra
Finding parameters from transmissibility curve:
1. Make straight line along the desired T value.

2. Note the r value for each intersection with curve with cons

Requirement:

X 0.005
T 0.5
Y 0.01

For T = 0.5:
1
r
0.01 1.73
0 .5
0.05 1.74
0.1
0.1 1.76 0.05
0.2 1.84 0.01
0.5 2.35
3.77 r / n
1.0

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra
From the transmissibility curve, lets choose:

0.01 r 1.73

r 1.73 k 1228 N/m
n

c 2 km 2.428 kg/s

## 1. Find the isolator (in a product catalogue) with these

2. If not available, try another damping loss factor.
3. Compromise in case of resonance.

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra
The choice of k and c must be reasonable for application
It has to consider:
1. The strength of the isolator to support the weight (sta
2. The force transmitted from the base to the instrumen

FT ma
FT 2 m X

FT k Y r T 2

FT
From example: 18.38 N
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra
The transmitted force from the base:
1. Small at resonance for a large damping factor.
2. Large at high frequency for a large damping factor.
40
=0.01
30 =0.1
=0.3
=0.7
20
FT/kY (dB)

10

-10

-20
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Frequency ratio, r
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra
SHOCK ISOLATION

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra
The design of an isolator should also anticipate for the s

## Assuming an idealised model of a shock input as a half

Y sin p t , 0 t t1
p

y (t )
0,
t t1
p

p
where is the input (excitation) frequency.
t1 is the pulse duration.

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra
x max n nt1
Plot: vs.
y max p

## **Large damping is desirable for shock attenuation.

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra
For shock isolation:
x max
1
y max

0.1 :

nt1 0.25m 2
0.5 k
2
t1

## An isolator should be designed so that it is good for both

vibration and shock isolation.

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra
SUMMARY for Transmissibility

FT 1 (2r ) 2
Fixed base force
F0 (1 r ) (2r )
2 2 2

## X 1 (2r ) 2 Moving base

displacement
Y (1 r ) (2r )
2 2 2

FT 1 ( 2 r ) 2
r 2
Moving base force
kY (1 r 2 ) 2 (2r ) 2
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra
VIBRATION
ABSORBER

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra
ISOLATOR and ABSORBER? What is the different?

## 1. Isolate vibration to main structure

1. Absorb (reduce) vibrati
(blocking the path). from main structure.
2. Remain as one DOF system. 2. Change to two DOF sys
3. Work for single frequen
3. Work for broad frequency range.
(resonance).
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra
Equations of motion
mx cx kx ca ( x x a ) k a ( x xa ) f (t ) (1a)
ma xa ca ( x a x ) k a ( xa x) 0 (2a)

## For harmonic motion:

k k a 2

m j ( c c a ) X ( k a j c a ) X a F (1b)
(k a 2 ma jca ) X a (k a jca ) X 0 (2b)
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra
From 2(b): ( k a j c a ) X
Xa
k a 2 ma jca
Substitute to 1(b), we obtain the motion of the main str

(k a 2 ma jca ) F
X

k k a 2 m j (c ca ) (k a 2 ma jca ) (k a jca ) 2

ca 0 damping
For convenience, assuming absorber has small

(k a ma ) F
2
X
(k k a 2 m jc)(k a 2 ma ) k a2

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra
To make vibration of the main structure becomes zero:

X 0 k a ma 0
2

ka

ma

## 1. The properties of the absorber, ka and ma, should be ch

the excitation frequency of the main structure.
2. Only effective for machine operating at fixed frequen
(synchronous machines).

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra
Back to 1(a):
f (t )
x(t ) 0, ca 0 xa (t )
ka
Force provided by the absorber:

f (t )
f a (t ) k a xa k a f (t )
ka

## By tuning the absorber to the excitation frequency,

the force given by the absorber mass is equal in magni
in direction to the disturbance force.

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra
DYNAMIC Absorber

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra
Important to note!

## For undamped absorber:

1. The excitation frequency has to be
exactly.

## 3. If of the system shifts,

it might suffer resonance (from 2
How to prevent this happen?

## Increase the system resonance bandwi

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra
The ratio of the main structure displacement
after and before attaching the absorber:

X 1 2 / a2

X 0 [1 2 ( / p ) 2 ][1 ( / a ) 2 ] 2

where:

## p k / m - original natural frequency of the main str

without the absorber frequency excita

## a k a / ma - natural frequency of the absorber before

the main structure.

k a ma a2
2 2

k m p
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra
The ratio graph
X
X0
0.25
1

0.908 1.118 a
absorber zone
Increase the absorber mass?
Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
The effect of mass ratio
ma / m on the system resonance

1

0.4

0.3 0.25
0.2
0.1
n / a
1 / a 1 2 / a

As increases,
2 1 becomes larger.

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra
Design considerations:

## 1. If is too large (the mass of the absorber almost s

the mass of the main structure), this indicates a ve

2. If 1
is too small (2 and are very close)
the system cannot tolerate much fluctuation
in the excitation frequency.

Rule of thumb:

0.05 0.25

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra
The effect of damping
1. Performance reduces.
The absorber will not ca
the vibration completely
2. Significantly reduces amp
at resonances.
Absorber bandwith incr
application).
3. To ensure A and B are the
the absorber should be
a 1

M.J.Brennan, 2007
n 1
i.e. lower than the trouble
resonance frequency.

## The optimum damping is

3
opt
8 1 3 Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra
Types of vibration absorber

M.J.Brennan, 2007

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra
Millenium Bridge - London (2000)

Cost: 18.2m
(RM 127.4m)

Designs:

1. Random excitation
from pedestrian.
2. Only vertical vibra
was considered.

Problems:
Pedestrians causing
excited lateral vibration
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra
Millenium Bridge - London (2000)

Solutions:

Cost: 5m
(RM 35m)

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra
References:

## D. J. Inman, Engineering Vibrations, Pearson

M. J. Brennan, Advanced Courses, Univ. of Southampton

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Prepared by: Dr. Azma Putra