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Procesul de achiziie

Capitolul 2

Monczka Handfield Giunipero Patterson
Obiectivele cursului.
Rezultatele nvrii
Obiectivele procesului de achiziie
Responsabilitile procesului de
E-procurement i procesul de plat
Tipuri de achiziie
mbuntirea procesului de achiziie

Etapele procesului de achiziie

Identificarea nevoilor beneficiarului;

Evaluarea nevoilor efective;
Identificarea furnizorilor;
Plata achiziiilor (la termen);
Controlul satisfacerii nevoilor interne
ale beneficiarului;
mbuntirea continu a proceselor.

Procesul de achiziie - 1. Nevoile beneficiarului

exemplu Specificaii
Bon de lucru
YES Cerine produs nou
Furnizor MRP
aprobat? Cerere de transport
Cerere de achiziie

Card de achiziie NO
Catalog on-line
Verificare stocuri YES Sum mic? NO Cerine YES RFI/RFQ

2. Evaluarea
NO furnizorilor
4. Aprobare
Ordin de achiziie achiziie 3a. Ofertare sau
Eliberare bunuri negociere

3b. Selecie
Bill of lading Factur 6. Actualizare
5. Eliberare &
Packing slip furnizor scor evaluare
primire Input used
bunuri sau to award
servicii future
Verificare Plat business
E-procurement ordin plat furnizor
Fluxul comenzii de achiziie

The Sourcing Process
Supplier Portfolio Screening Process

Source: C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D.

Obiectivele procesului de achiziie
Continuitate n aprovizionare;
Managementul eficient al procesului de
Dezvoltarea sistemului de management al
Dezvoltarea de relaii cu partenerii pe
orizontal i vertical, n lanul logistic
Atingerea obiectivelor organizaiei;
Dezvoltarea sistemului de achiziie integrat,
pentru dezvoltarea strategic. 8
Cerine pentru asigurarea continuitii
procesului de aprovizionare
Se achiziioneaz produse/servicii la preul
Se achiziioneaz de la sursa optim;
Achiziia ndeplinete cerinele interne i
nevoile beneficiarului;
Se achiziioneaz n cantitatea corect;
Livrarea comenzii este oportun, la timp i
Cerine pentru managementul procesului
de achiziie
Determinarea resurselor umane necesare;
Dimensionarea corect a achiziiilor n
funcie de bugetul aprobat;
Asigurarea de trening i expertiz necesare
derulrii corecte a proceselor;
Implementarea unui sistem de plat eficient.

Cerine pentru sistemul de plat

mbuntirea vizibilitii plilor efectuate,

n acord cu documentele achiziiei i cu
bugetul aprobat;
Racordarea serviciului de facturare la
serviciul de pli;
Eficiena plilor prin respectarea
termenelor i corelarea cu momentul
recepiei mrfurilor.
Principii ale dezvoltrii unui sistem de
management al aprovizionrii
Selectarea furnizorilor cei mai competitivi;
Identificarea furnizorilor cu potenial i
consolidarea unor relaii apropiate de
colaborare cu acetia;
mbuntirea relaiilor strategice cu
furnizorii aflai n relaie cu compania;
Sprijinul furnizorilor cu potenial pentru a
deveni competitivi.
Dezvoltarea relaiilor de colaborare
Tratarea departamentelor beneficiare ca
utilizator final ale crui nevoi sunt foarte
Comunicare bivalent ntre departamentul
beneficiar i departamentul de achiziii;
Colaborare i coordonare eficient la nivel
Atitudine pozitiv, orientat ctre obiective i
rezolvarea de probleme.

Strategii de aprovizionare inteligente
Monitorizarea pieei de achiziii i
anticiparea trendurilor;
Identificarea produselor/serviciilor critice
pentru beneficiar;
Implicarea n dezvoltarea unor produse noi
sau mbuntite de ctre furnizri;
Implementarea planurilor de risc pentru
Crearea unei baze de aprovizionare
competitive la nivel internaional. 14
Funciile i responsabilitile procesului
de achiziie
Evaluarea i selectarea furnizorilor;
Elaborarea i revizuirea specifica iilor pentru
produsele/serviciile de achiziionat;
Gestionarea procedurilor de achizi ie i a
contactului cu ofertanii sau cu potenialii
Previziune i planificarea cerinelor i a
nevoilor interne, n acord cu bugetul;
Clarificarea nevoilor interne la beneficiarul
final la nivel intern. 15
Study case An entrepreneurial approach to purchasing
Peter Russo has been an entrepreneur for more than 20 years. His hands-on experience
is diverseeverything from founding start-ups in his basement, to serving as chairman
of a venture-owned turnaround, to licensing products to billion-dollar companies. Hes
set up direct consumer selling systems and has developed and sold hundreds of
products to Americas largest big-box retailers, such as Wal-Mart, ToysR Us, and Petco;
He left his own business to become the director of purchasing at Babson College. Russo
focuses on three buying processes and their associated customers:
1. Automated buying. This empowers the customer to independently purchase and manage
material from a defined inventory. Office supplies are the best example of this type of
2. Competitively bidded buying. This requires the research and evaluation of multiple options
to determine needs, best price, and service levels and is sent to multiple suppliers
soliciting their bids. Examples in this category include desktop printers,kitchen
equipment, software, and construction materials.
3. Contracted services. This buying process involves using the expertise of suppliers that
team with the college to provide products used on a daily, ongoing basis, such as dining
services and books.
Our purchasing department is no different from most companies in the private sector,
says Russo. As he sees it, todays challenge is twofold:
1. Leverage technology to simplify and automate repetitive activities while capturing and
disseminating information/knowledge.
2. Maximize strategic alliances for best practices and supply management in areas that are
outside its expertise. 16
Study case An entrepreneurial approach to purchasing
Peter Russo designed some stages of reform as following:
PREPARING FOR CHANGE - Russo and his team evaluated and modified the buying
process to meet the desired format of the customers, but he felt it would also be critical
to increase the campus awareness of each new service. Russo also wanted to
communicate the staffs knowledge and professionalism. He and two key staff members
are currently taking certification training to become Certified Purchasing Managers.
discovered that day-to-day operations required 100% of their attention, leaving little time
to enhance the purchasing process. He quickly learned that his talented staff was
drowning in paperwork and telephone calls. The first steps were to prioritize our
objectives, establish our strategies and timelines, and outline measurable goals. Next,
we quickly determined what actions could reduce their current workload without risking
service levels, so my team could focus on enhancing the process.
AUTOMATING THE EVERYDAY - Kerrie focused on the automated buying processes. She
spent many hours at the computer, creating an interactive purchasing website for both
internal customers and suppliers. When its up and running, a new era will begin. Gone
will be manual entries and multiple data inputs.
CLOSING THE BACK DOOR - Supply management channels are often overlooked by
those who believe we know what we want, so why do we need central purchasing? The
result has been multiple purchasing of single-need items, lack of safeguards,
inconsistent pricing, and contracts.
DEVELOPING NEW RELATIONSHIPS - Leveraging a suppliers expertise, whether its in
raw materials testing or third-party fulfillment and distribution,was a major tool in 17
realizing success.
Ciclul procesului achiziie plat
Procure to Pay (PP)
Proiecte Operaiuni

Start Sfrit

ndeplinirea cerinelor
beneficiarului intern

Factori implicai: Finane, resurse umane, cadru legal, tehnologia informaiei i IT

Total Procurement Price Pre achiziie
Landed Cost Costul total de livrare
Purchase cost is just a fraction of the total
cost to acquire a good or service. Total
Landed Cost (TLC) represents the sum of
all costs associated with a good or service.
These include:
Lifecycle costs
Inventory costs
Transaction costs
Quality costs
Technology costs
Management costs
Understanding Total Landed Cost

Source: C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D.

Beneficii ale sistemului electronic de
achiziie (E-procurement)
Eliminarea documentelor pe suport hrtie
Reducerea timpului scurs ntre momentul
determinrii nevoii i lansarea comenzilor,
respectiv recepia bunurilor;
mbuntirea comunicrii interdepartamentale;
Reducerea erorilor;
Reducerea costurilor directe sau de regie;
Reducerea timpului de procesare a documentelor
de achiziie.

e-Sourcing and e-Procurement
The use of electronic capabilities to conduct activities
and processes relating to procurement and sourcing.

Which of These Solutions Should be Considered

Lower operating costs
Reduced sourcing time
Improved control over inventory and spending
Loss of personal contact
e-Commerce Models
Sell-side system
Online businesses selling to individual companies or
Buy-side system
This buyer-controlled e-procurement or e-commerce
Electronic marketplace
Represents a seller-operated service that consists of a
number of electronic catalogs from vendors within a
virtual market.
Online trading community
Maintained by a third-party technology vendor where
multiple buyers and multiple sellers in a given market can
conduct business
Clarificarea nevoilor Cererea intern
Clarificarea cererii interne si a specificaiilor
de lucru (dup caz);
Previziunea nevoilor i planificarea
ordinelor de achiziie;
Implementarea sistemului de
Verificarea stocurilor (verificare regulat);
Dezvoltarea de noi produse, n colaborare
cu furnizorii, pornind de la nevoile dinamice
ale utilizatorilor interni. 25
Elementele unei necesar de achiziie
Requisition Order

Descrierea detaliat a bunului material;

Cantitatea solicitat;
Cost unitar estimat;
Contul de eviden contabil afectat;
Data comenzii;
Termenul de onorare a necesitii;
Semntura autorizat;
Cerere de achiziie - Requisition Order

Oferta de pre - Request for Quotation

Pentru formularea
ofertelor se solicit
Oferta de pre;

Study case Forecasting future demand
Honeywells OneSource software, is like an expanding universe,
covering both backward- and forwardlooking spend data. It gives the
companys commodity managers a way to spot strategic sourcing and
spend management opportunities in real time.
Strategic Sourcing platform, OneSource automatically gathers
procurement data from 107 (eventually 152) Honeywell locations. Data
available for analysis and decision supports span two previous years
plus the current year. Each site provides six discrete data feeds: open
purchase orders, receipts, rejects, unplaced demand or forecast
(demand from MRP system but not yet purchased), supplier master,
and accounts payable spend, including off-purchase order MRO
spend. The seventh and eighth data feeds capture contract
manufacture bill of materials (part list) and component part approved
vendor list for businesses doing subcontract spend analysis.
Data in a specified format is taken from the systems the site has
from Excel to a vast array of ERP and MRP systems, including Avalon,
BPICS, Cullinet, Oracle, SAP as well as some homegrown versions,
says Dennis Lemon, corporate director of supplier quality.
Gestionarea micrii bunurilor
Utilizarea etichetrii cu coduri de bare , care
conin informaii precum:
Descrierea reperului;
Lista furnizorilor aprobai;
Preuri pltite la furnizori diferii;
Nivel stocuri pentru reaprovizionare;
nregistrri cu privire la utilizare.
Economisete timp pentru manipulare,
lotizare, depozitare etc.
Descrierea reperelor n eviden

Cod identificare n nomenclator;

Caracteristici de performan.

Identificarea i selecia furnizorilor

Pentru furnizorii vechi:

Istoricul relaiei de colaborare;
Ordinea preferinei de apelare;
Pentru furnizorii noi:
Analiza oportunitii;
Nevoia de identificare a potenialilor furnizori;
Nevoia de evaluare i calificare;
Se aplic procedura de negociere sau oferta
Identificarea i selecia furnizorilor

Competiie de oferte vs. negociere;

Cerere ofert de pre;
Specificaii produs sau detalii funcionale;
Evaluarea furnizorilor n raport cu criteriile
alese sau cu performanele anterioare.

Cnd se utilizeaz competiia de oferte?

Se achiziioneaz un volum mare de bunuri;

Cerinele/specificaiile sunt clare pentru
Piaa este una competitiv i diversificat;
Exist criterii de calificare a furnizorilor pentru
diminuarea bazei de depunere a ofertelor;
Exist timp suficient la dispoziie;
Beneficiarul nu prefer sau nu are un
parteneriat strategic cu un furnizor anume.
Cnd se utilizeaz negocierea?
Criteriile pentru competiia de oferte nu sunt
Achiziia solicit concurena unui spectru larg de
indicatori de performan, n afara preului de
Beneficiarul solicit implicarea prealabil a
furnizorului n dezvoltarea unui produs nou sau
mbuntire unui produs vechi;
Furnizorul nu poate determina riscurile asociate
sau preul nainte de contractare;
Furnizorul solicit timp suplimentar pentru
dezvoltarea unui produs. 35
Coninutul Comenzii de achiziie
(Purchase Order PO)
Cantitate Metod de livrare
Specificaii Adresa de livrare
produs Termene limit
Cerine de calitate
Data de livrare

P.O. Form

Evidena i vizibilitatea P.O.

Cont furnizor
Titular comand
Titular recepie
Managementul micrii bunurilor
Controlul calitii.

P.O. deschis (Blanket PO)

Utilizat pentru procesele continue de

achiziie, n baza unui contract i a unui
plan de livrare;
Economisete timp n emiterea unor PO
P.O. rmne deschis pe perioada derulrii
contractului sau pe o perioad convenit
de comun acord cu furnizorii.
Blanket P.O.

Purchasing & Supply Chain Management, 4e

Tipuri de Comenzi de achiziie (P.O.)

Comenzi/Contracte bazate pe pre fix :

Riscuri financiare fluctuaie de pia;
Riscuri tehnologice;
Comenzi/ Contracte cu pre determinabil
funcie de cost:
Risc de provizioane;
Necesitatea de a supraveghea costurile
Recepia bunurilor
Electronic vs. Documente tiprite;
Recepie se face pe baz de inventar de complet
sau de list de mpachetare;
Documentul de transport (Bill of lading) este anexat
la livrare;
Se ntocmete Raport de constatare de diferene
cantitative i calitative;
Sistemul de achiziie just-in-time ridic probleme la
rapiditatea recepiei;
Evidena retururilor.

Procesul de recepie

Emiterea facturii i plata
Ciclul achiziie plat (procure to pay)
Pentru certificarea plii se va face o tripl
verificare, respectiv:
Comanda de achiziie (PO);
Documentele de recepie (Receiving report/ Not recepie
constatare de diferene).
Plile pot fi efectuate electronic (Electronic funds
transfer (EFT)
Se vor centraliza lunar plile i comenzile pentru

Tipuri de achiziie
Materii prime;
Semifabricate i componente;
Produse finite;
Servicii de mentenan, reparaii i stocuri de
ntreinere (maintenance, repair, and operating
supplies - MRO);
Materiale suport pentru producie;
Investiii echipamente, instalaii;
Transporturi, servicii externalizare sau furnizori
servicii logistice.
Types and Importance of Items and
Service Purchased
Generics (universale) are low-risk, low-value items and
services that typically do not enter in the final product.
Commodities (de baz-generale) are items or services that
are low in risk but high in value. Basic production materials
(bolts), basic packaging (exterior box), and transportation
services are examples of commodities that enhance the
profitability of the company but pose a low risk.
Distinctives (distincte) are high-risk, low-value items and
services such as engineered items, parts that are available
from only a limited number of suppliers, or items that have a
long lead time.
Criticals (critice) are high-risk, high-value items that give the
final product a competitive advantage in the marketplace.
Item Procurement Importance Matrix

Source: C. John Langley Jr., Ph.D.

Types of Purchasing Activity

CAPITAL GOODS Bunuri de investiii achiziii de bunuri

cu durat lung de ntrebuinare
REBUY - Bunuri reaprovizionate pentru producie standard
sau modificate dup nevoile beneficiarului;
MRO Bunuri pentru mentenan, reparaii i diverse.
Achiziie de servicii de mentenan i reparaii

Operaiunile i stocurile pentru MRO nu sunt

urmrite similar stocurilor pentru producie
datorit elementelor particulare i frecven ei
Pentru MRO fie sunt muli furnizori fie avem
furnizori exclusivi;
De obicei comenzile de servicii MRO sunt
multe i n valoare redus - costisitoare ca
timp de procesare.
mbuntirea proceselor de achiziie
Introducerea sistemelor de comand on-line;
Introducerea cardurilor de achizi ie pentru achizi iile
Utilizarea formelor de E-commerce prin valorificare
comerului pe Internet;
ncheierea de nelegeri contractuale strategice pe
termen lung, pentru produsele critice;
Redefinirea proceselor de achiziie;
Utilizare platforme EDI-Electronic data interchange
Utilizarea cataloage on-line pentru achizi ii curente
Pstrarea relaiilor i contactului direct furnizor-
Avantajele comenzilor on-line
Immediate visibility to backorders
Faster order input time
Reduced ordering errors
Order tracking capability
Order acknowledgement from supplier
Ability to batch multiple items into a single
Faster order cycle time

Analiza proceselor de aprovizionare la
Compania FedEx
Stabilirea reperului de achiziionat
Selectarea surselor de aprovizionare
Analiza detaliata a potenialului furnizorilor
Confirmarea i reevaluarea strategiei de

Analiza proceselor de aprovizionare la
Compania FedEx
Selectarea furnizorilor i conducerea
proceselor de negociere;
Integrarea furnizorilor cu instrumente e-
procurement i alte sisteme/departamente
Analiza comparat a pieei utiliznd fi a de
evaluarea a furnizorilor practicat de FedEx

FedEx Strategic Sourcing Process
Sourcing Process Selected Activities
Confirm user requirements
Develop category definition
Profile the Sourcing Define basic characteristics
Group Understand industry/supply markets

Assess bargaining position

Evaluation alternative strategies
Select Sourcing Select appropriate approaches and
Strategy techniques

Identify qualified suppliers

Generate Determine supplier value-added
Supplier capabilities
Develop supplier short list
Select Verify and adjust sourcing strategy
Develop implementation plan
FedEx Strategic Sourcing Process
Sourcing Process Selected Activities
Plan negotiation strategy
Evaluate supplier proposals
Negotiate and Select Conduct negotiations with suppliers
Suppliers Recommend sourcing decision

Plan and implement transition to new

suppliers relationships
Operationalize Supplier Link key processes
Conduct joint process improvement
Integration activities

Monitor market conditions

Assess new technology and best
Benchmark the practices impact
Supply Market Conduct benchmarking activities
Determine appropriateness for
reexamining category