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Basic Principles of

Hydraulics
Symbols

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Symbols
Pumps
Fixed Displacement One direction of flow. Constant delivery for
constant speed

Variable Displacement One direction of flow. Variable delivery for


constant speed

Pressure compensated variable pump


One direction of flow, adjustable spring and
pump case drain.
Method of adjustment is shown on the
arrow
Directional of flow reversible. Variable
delivery for constant speed.

Hydraulic Energy Source


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(simplified representation)
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Symbols
Drive units
M Electric Motor

M Engine

Motors
One direction of rotation.
Fixed Displacement
Constant shaft speed for
constant flow rate

Either direction of rotation, depending on


direction of flow. Constant shaft speed for
constant flow rate.

Variable Displacement Either direction of rotation.


Speed variable for constant
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Symbols

Semi rotary
actuator Limited rotary movement eg
1800

Pressure Intensifiers

Equipment to
transform a Single acting
pressure x in to
a pressure y

x y
Continuous

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Symbols
Actuators

Single Acting Returned by external force

Spring return

Vent

Telescopic Cylinder

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Symbols
Actuators

Double acting Forward and return stroke under power


Single piston rod.

Double acting Double ended piston rod

Cushioned Variable cushioning at both ends.

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Symbols
Directional
Control Valves A
2/2 way valve
Porting Two Way
Normally closed
(2 position) P

A
3/2 way valve
Three
Way Normally closed
P T

A B
4/2 way valve
Four Way
Changeover
P T
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Valve Description
Number of Ports 3

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Valve Description
Number of Ports 3
Number of
Control positions

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Valve Description
Number of Ports 3
Number of Control
positions
2
(Number of Boxes)

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Valve Description
Number of Ports 3
Number of Control
positions
2
(Number of Boxes)

Method Push
of Button
Operation

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Valve Description
Number of Ports 3
Number of Control
positions
2
(Number of Boxes)

Method Push
of Button
Operation
Method Spring
of Return

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Valve Description
Number of Ports 3
Number of
Control positions
2
(Number of Boxes)

Flow path Method Push


blocked when of Button
valve is at rest Operation
Method Spring
of Return

Flow path Normally closed Normally


open when or Normally open Closed
valve is at rest
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Symbols
Directional A B
Control Valves
Closed centre

P T
3 position valves

A B

Open
centre
P T

A B

Tandem centre

P T

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Symbols
Directional
Control Valves
A B

3 position valves Floating Centre

P T

A B

Regenerative Centre

P T

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Symbols
Methods of Operation General manual operation
Usually used to represent a manual
override

Lever operation

Foot Pedal operation

Push Button operation

Detent operation
Usually used with lever operation
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Symbols
Methods of Operation
Pilot operation

Roller operation

Spring operation
Usually used as a return or centring
function

Solenoid operation

Internal pilot or 2 stage


operation
Usually used with solenoid
operation
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Symbols
Non return valves

Opens if inlet pressure is


Free higher than outlet pressure

Spring loaded Opens if inlet pressure is higher


than outlet pressure plus spring
load

Pilot operated Can be opened to permit reverse


flow by means of pilot pressure

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Symbols
Pressure Controls

Single stage with internal drain


Pressure Relief
Valve

Also sometimes represented so

With external drain

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Symbols
Pressure Controls

Pressure Relief
Remote pilot control with
Valve
internal drain

Internally piloted or 2 stage


relief valve

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Symbols
Pressure Controls
A
Pressure Downstream pressure
Regulating Valves control Forward flow only
external drain
B

Downstream pressure control.


3 way pressure If outlet pressure exceeds set
regulating valve pressure, flow is diverted to
tank.

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Symbols
Pressure Controls

Pressure regulator with reverse


flow by-pass built in

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Symbols
Pressure Controls Comparison

Pressure Relief Pressure Regulator

Pressure
operation from A
inlet

Shown normally Pressure B Shown


closed operation from normally open
outlet
Valve is closed until the pressure at the Valve is open until the pressure at the
inlet is high enough to open it (set outlet is high enough to close it (set
pressure). Flow is then usually to tank. pressure). Flow is usually to cylinder or
other part of the circuit.
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Symbols
Pressure Controls

Sequence Valves Maintains upstream pressure,


allows flow through to other
functions.

Maintains upstream pressure,


Two stage sequence allows flow through to other
valve functions.
External drain

Provides controlled backpressure


for load support.
Counterbalance valve
With built in by-pass

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Symbols
Flow
Controls

Non pressure Flow proportional to preset area times


compensated the square root of the pressure drop
across restrictor

Flow restricted in one direction only.

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Symbols
Flow
Controls Flow proportional to preset area
Pressure irrespective of valve pressure drop.
Compensated Direction of flow as indicated (non
reversible). Excess flow must find
alternative path.

Also sometimes

Pressure & Temperature Preset area automatically adjusts


Compensated to compensate for viscosity
changes

Bypass Regulator Excess flow bypassed internally

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Symbols
Flow
Controls

Input flow is divided to 2 flows of


Flow divider fixed ratio
Pressure compensated.

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Symbols
Proportional Valves Valve with 2 distinct operating
positions, fully open and fully closed,
and an infinite number of intermediate
positions.

4/3 directional control valve,


proportional.
3 distinct operating positions with closed
centre position and an infinite number of
intermediate positions.
Solenoid current is controlled through
proportional amplifier.
Servo valve
Controlled by a torque motor.
Direction of movement is dependent on
voltage polarity.
Amount of movement is dependent on
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magnitude of current.
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Symbols
Modulating Control
Valves
More often referred to as Proportional Control Valves and usually solenoid operated.
With these valves there is a known relationship between the position of the spool and
the flow through the valve. Therefore flow (speed) can be controlled electronically
without the need for adjusting manual valves.

Full flow

Proportional Valve

Flow Conventional
Rate valve

Spool Travel
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Symbols
Miscellaneous

Reservoirs Vented to atmosphere

Return line below fluid level

Return line above fluid level

Header tank
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Symbols
Miscellaneous

Conditioning Units
Filter or Strainer

Cooler

Water cooled

Heater

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Symbols
Miscellaneous

Pressure Gauge

Shut off valve

Accumulator

Gas type

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Hydraulic Formulae

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Hydraulic Formula

Force (F) = Area (A) x Pressure (P)


Newtons (N) Square metres (sq. m) Pascals (Pa)
Pounds (lbf) Square inches (sq. in) Pounds/sq.in (psi)

Note:
* The pascal is a very small unit of pressure.

100 Kpa = 10N = 14.5 psi = 1 Bar


cm2
e.g. 5000KPa = 50 Bar = 725 psi

F = A x P P = F A = F
A P
-------------------------------------

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Hydraulic Formula

Flow Rate = Flow Velocity x Flow area


metres 3 / sec metres / second metres 2
Usually flow rate is given in Litres/minute and flow area given in cm2 or mm2 .
Care must be taken to ensure the correct multiples are used.
Eg. Calculate the cross sectional area required for the suction line of a pump
delivering
40 l/min with a maximum flow velocity of 1.2 m/s.
Area = Flow rate 40 l/min = 40/60 x 10-3 m3/s
Flow velocity
Area = 40 x 10 -3 m2
60 x 1.2
Area = 0.555 x 10 -3 m2 (Pipe bore of 26.6mm)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

Volume of cylinder (base end) = Piston area x stroke length

Page 37 Volume of cylinder (rod end) = (Piston area - Rod area) x stroke
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Hydraulic Formula

Work done = Force x distance moved

Force on a piston = Pressure x area of piston


So,
work done = Pressure x area x distance moved

Area x distance moved = Volume

So
Work done = Pressure x volume

Power is the rate of doing work or, work done per unit of time.

Volume per unit time is flow rate - m3/second

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Hydraulic Formula

So
Hydraulic power = Pressure x Flow rate

If pressure is in Pascals (N/m2) and the flow rate is in m3/second then

Hydraulic power = Pressure x Flow rate - (Nm/s) = Watts

It is usual to give flow rate in litres/minute and pressure in bars. To use


these units in the calculation the following conversion has to be made.

Hydraulic Power (kW) = Pressure (bar) x Flow rate


(l/min)
600

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1) If a system pressure of 3000 p.s.i acts on a piston area of 3 sq ins, (approx 2 ins
diameter) what force will be produced?

2) If a force of 10,000 lb is produced from a cylinder with a piston area of 2.5 sq ins, what is
the pressure build up in the system?

3) If a force of 15,000 Newtons is produced in a cylinder with a piston area of 20 sq cm,


what is the pressure build up in the system?

4) A cylinder with piston area 150 sq cm and stroke length of 400cm must fully extend in 15
seconds. What flow rate (in Litres/min) must the pump deliver to achieve this?

5) If a hydraulic pump is delivering a flow of 40 litres / min against a pressure of 150 bar,
what is the power consumption (in KW) at the pump?

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