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7.

0 DEFORMATION OF METAL

INTRODUCTION
The changes produced in the shape of the metal piece under the action of
the single force or a set of force is called as deformation.

7.1 CLASSIFICATION OF METAL DEFORMATION


The metal deformation is classified into two types depending upon the
nature of the strain produced during the deformation.
1. Elastic deformation
2. Plastic deformation.
7.0 DEFORMATION OF METAL

Elastic deformation:
The term elastic deformation may be defined as the process of deformation,
which appears and disappears simultaneously with the application and
removal of stress according to Hooks law.

It has been observed that whenever a stress of low magnitude is applied


to a piece of a metal, it causes displacement of atoms from their original
position.

In elastic deformation the tensile strain is due to slight elongation


of the unit cell in the direction of tensile load.

Similarly the compressive strain is due to the compressive


load.
7.0 DEFORMATION OF METAL

BEFORE
LOADING AND
AFTER ON LOADING IN
REMOBVING
TENSION
THE LOAD

BEFORE
LOADING AND
AFTER
ON LOADING IN
REMOBVING COMPRESSION
THE LOAD

Fig 7.1
7.0 DEFORMATION OF METAL

Plastic deformation:
The term plastic deformation may be defined as the process of
permanent deformation, which exists in metal even after removal
of the stress. It is due to this property that the metals may be
subjected various operations like rolling, forging, drawing, etc.
7.0 DEFORMATION OF METAL

7.2 COMPARISON OF ELASTIC AND PLASTIC DEFORMATION


The following table gives the important difference between the plastic and
elastic deformation.

ELASTIC DEFORMATION PLASTIC DEFORMATION


SL.NO

It is a deformation which appears and disappears It is permanent deformation, which


1
whit the application and the removal of stress. exists even after the removal of stress.

It takes place after the elastic


2 It is the beginning of process of deformation
deformation has stopped.

It takes place over a short range stress strain It takes place over a wide range of stress
3
curve strain curve

In elastic deformation the strain reaches its In plastic deformation the strain occurs
4 maximum value after the stress has reached its simultaneously with the application of
maximum value. stress.
7.0 DEFORMATION OF METAL

Plastic deformation:
TYPES PLASTIC DEFORMATION
Though there are a number of plastic deformations, yet the
following are important from the subject point of view:

1. Slipping
2. Twinning
7.0 DEFORMATION OF METAL

Slipping:
The term slipping may be defined as the plastic deformation in
which a crystal plane moves over another due to shear stress the
process of slipping is shown in the fig 7.2
In fig a circle which indicates the arrangement of atoms in a
crystals lattice. Whereas in the next fig the slipping of atoms along the
slipping direction is shown. It has been observed that in slipping the
movement of crystal plane is over a large inter atomic distance. It may
be noted that the atoms do not come back to their original position even
after the removal of stresses as the atoms now have new neighbors.
It has been found that the slipping occurs along the planes and
direction, in which atoms are more closely spaced and the inter atomic
spacing is least. Such planes are known as a slip planes, and the
direction as slip direction. The combination of slip direction and slip
plane is called as the slip system.
7.0 DEFORMATION OF METAL

Mechanism of slipping:-
In the slipping process, all the atoms move simultaneously. In fig
the circles indicates the atoms in the cubic lattice. The next fig shows
the process of slipping due to shear stress. It may be noted that at any
stage of slipping, a boundary can be drawn between the slipped
&unslipped regions. More over, there will be a region of mis fit along this
boundary. This misfit is called dislocation & boundary as dislocation
lines. The movement of these dislocations produce further slip (fig 7.2)
7.0 DEFORMATION OF METAL

BEFORE SLIP

AFTER SLIP

SLIP
PLANE
7.0 DEFORMATION OF METAL

Twinning:
The twinning may be defined as the plastic deformation which
takes place along the two planes due to set of force applied on a given
metal piece. The process of twinning is shown in the fig given below. In
fig below the circles shows the arrangement of atoms before twinning, it
may be noted that the process of deformation between the two planes
AB & CD is similar to that of slipping. Where as the arrangement of
atoms on either side of the twinning planes remain unaffected (fig 7.3)
It has been observed that the metal usually deform by twinning
only if it is unable to slip. More over the deformation produced by
twinning is very small. But the places the slip planes in more favorable
orientation causing the deformation to take place through slip.
7.0 DEFORMATION OF METAL

Mechanism of twinning:
In a twining process the movement of atoms is only a fraction of
inter atomic distance. Fig shows the circles, which indicates the
arrangement of atoms. The dashed lines AB & CD represent the plane of
symmetry, from where the twinning starts and ends respectively. These
planes are known as twinning planes or the application of shear stress.
It has been observed that the crystals twin about the twin planes,
and the atoms in the region to the left of the twinning plane AB and right
of the twinning plane CD remains undisturbed. Whereas in the twin
region, each atoms move by a distance proportional to its distance from
the twinning plane AB.
7.0 DEFORMATION OF METAL

BEFORE TWINNING

AFTER TWINNING
7.0 DEFORMATION OF METAL

Comparison of slipping and twinning:


The following are the some of the important difference between slipping
and twinning.
SL.NO SLIPPING TWINNING

In this process, the deformation


In this process, the deformation
takes place due to the
1 takes place due to the sliding of
orientation of one part of crystal
the atomic plane over the other.
with respect to the other part.

In this process, the atomic In this process, the atomic


2 movements are over large movements are over a fraction
atomic distance. of atomic spacing.

3 It requires low stresses. It requires higher stresses.


A threshold value of stress
called resolved shear stress is There is no such threshold value
4
required for slipping to take of stress in this case.
place.
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8.0FERROUS METALS

Introduction
There is scarcely a single aspect in our daily lives where in iron does not
play an important part. Our food, our means of transport, the buildings,
our firesides and its comforts, iron is necessary for them all. The
magnitude property of iron alone, by making possible the electrical age
in which we live has conferred incalculable benefits on humanity. It is
backbone of modern industry and hence indispensable. Iron is fourth
common element and second most abundant metal in earths crust. The
symbol for iron is Fe. Its atomic number is 26 and atomic mass is
55.84. It melts at 1539C. Ferrous is the name, which derived from the
Latin word Ferrum meaning iron. So all the metals, which contain
iron are classified under the name ferrous metals.
8.0FERROUS METALS

8.1 THE PRINCIPAL FERROUS MATERIALS USED IN


ENGINEERING FIELDS ARE CLASSIFIED AS :

1.Pig iron
2. Cast iron
3. Wrought iron
4. Steel
8.0FERROUS METALS

Pig iron: - It is product of a blast furnace and is made by the reduction of


iron ore.
Cast iron: -The pig iron is melted and cast into moulds of the desired
shape in order to obtain cast iron. It contains so much of the carbon that
as cast; it is less malleable at any temperature.
Wrought iron: - It is obtained from pig iron by burning out carbon, silicon,
manganese, phosphorous and sulphur impurities. Wrought iron is a
pure form of pig iron. In the process of purification a minute quantity of
slag is incorporated to give fibrous structure to wrought iron.
Steel: -It is form of iron and carbon with carbon content varying up to 1.5%.
It is malleable in some range.
8.0FERROUS METALS

Pig iron: - All iron and steel products are derived originally from pig iron.
This is the raw material obtained from the chemical reduction of iron ore
in a blast furnace. The reduction of iron to pig iron is known as
Smelting. The main raw materials required for pig iron are, Iron ore,
coking coal and flux.
The coke is used in the blast furnace should be a very high class hard.
Cokes obtained from good quality coking coals contain low phosphorus
and sulphur. Flux is the mineral substance that is charged into the blast
furnace to lower the melting point of the ore and to promote the removal
of ash, sulphur and residues of the burnt fuel.
8.0FERROUS METALS

Manufacturing of Pig Iron


The blast furnace is a vertical shaft furnace designed for
continuous operation. Thus smelting room of the blast furnace consists
of a throat, stack, body, bosh and hearth. The raw materials (alternate
layers of ore, coke and flux) known as charge is introduced into the
throat by means of double bell and hopper arrangement. Hot blast is
introduced into the throat by means of double bell and hopper
arrangement. Hot blast is forced into a furnace through a number of
nozzles called tuyers. The tuyers are cooled by water circulation
between the pipe walls. The temperature of the furnace just above the
level of the tuyers (melting zone) being 1000C to 1700C all substances
inside the furnace start melting in the heat. The limestone that serves as
a flux combines with the ore to form a molten slag, which floats on top
of the molten iron. The slag is tapped off from the furnace through the
slag hole. The molten iron is tapped off from 6 to 12 hours intervals,
through the tapping hole, blast being turned off mean while.
The chief ores and their approximate yield of metal:
8.0FERROUS METALS
8.0FERROUS METALS

Percentage
Ores Appearance Composition
of metals
Steel-grey or
Magnetite Fe3O4 72-62
black
Crystalline or
granular,
Red hematite Fe2O3 70-60
earthy or rock
red
Brown, dense, 2Fe3O4
Brown hematite 60-42
earthy 3H2O
Siderite or Sky grey,
FeCO3 48-35
spathic crystalline
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