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# DJJ5123 PNEUMATIC

& HYDRAULICS

## 5.0 BASIC HYDRAULIC

CIRCUIT

Prepared by: Mohd Khairi Haslamia B Mat Ripin / Credit to: Rusmay B Abdullah
Hydraulic Circuit

## A hydraulic circuit is a system comprising an

interconnected set of discrete components that transport
liquid.
The purpose of this system may be to control where fluid
flows (as in a network of tubes of coolant in a
thermodynamic system) or to control fluid pressure (as in
hydraulic amplifiers).

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Arrangement Of Components

Cylinder

Check valve

Motor

Filter

Tank 3

## Basic hydraulic circuit to actuate the cylinder

A basic circuit of hydraulic control system to drive a motor two actions
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The basic components in a hydraulic circuit is as below: -

Components Description
Valve It serves to regulate the pressure in the circuit and control the
direction of the oil flow.

movement.

## Filter Serves to filter the hydraulic oil from impurities.

Pump Serves to distribute the quantity of hydraulic oil to the entire
system.

## Cylinder Serves to produce the power to create straight movement.

Accumulator It serves as a storage system pressure, vibration absorbers and
stabilizer system pressure.

Tank Serves to hold the hydraulic oil and cool the hydraulic oil.

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Sterling hydraulic

## It is designed to control a sequence of operations cylinder with sequence valve.

Example; given sequence is A + B + B- A-

Based on the figure below, directional control valves actuated by hydraulic power.
When the directional control valve is actuated, the cylinder A and B will move according
to the following sequence: -

## i. Rod Cylinder A (clamping) moves out

ii. Rod Cylinders B (drilling) moves out
iii. Rod Cylinders B move in
iv. A cylinder rod moves in

In the circuit in sequence, sequence valve (a) and (b) must be adjusted at a pressure
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## higher than the pressure (1) and (2).

sequence valve (a)

## Sterling hydraulic circuit

Electro hydraulic

## In the electro-hydraulic circuit as shown in the figure below, the directional

control valve with double solenoid actuated by limit switches.

## By pressing the switch, solenoid (a) is energized for operation (1).

At the end of the operation (1), solenoid (c) is energized by limit switches 2
to get the operation (2).
Then the solenoid (b) is energized by limit switches 3 to get the operation (3).
Finally, the solenoid (d) is energized by limit switches 1 for operation (4).

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1 2
3 4

## solenoid (a) solenoid (b) solenoid (c) solenoid (d)

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Electro hydraulic circuit
Opened cynosure system

## Opened cynosure system or open-centre system, the pump will

move continuously even directional control valve is in a neutral
position. Hydraulic oil will continue to flow from the pump
through the directional control valve then drains back into the
tank.

It was found that this system is simpler in construction and good for the
lower pressure at the time of the movement.
This reduces vibration and wear and reduce the energy caused by the
leakage when the system is neutral condition.
In addition, it has a circuit that is simple and easily constructed. 10

Cylinder

Check valve

Motor

Filter

Tank
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## Opened cynosure system

Closed cynosure system
In a closed cynosure system or closed centre system, the pump will stop when the
directional control valve is in a neutral condition. Directional control valve will block
the flow of oil from the pump. This will cause the hydraulic pump to stop pumping
oil. The pump will be switched off by disconnecting the supply current to the motor
that turns the pump. The switch is controlled by oil pressure.

The pump only operates when the system requires oil. This method saves engine power
when the hydraulic equipment is used.
Oil stored at high pressure for quick action. This method saves operating time (operating
time).
Delay action hydraulic system can be reduced by providing a high-pressure oil for
immediate action against the open centre system in which the oil must be held before the
oil pressure can be raised or lifted for operation.
If the hydraulic system is used to create a variety of work in the same time
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of course the
system will take a long time to increase the pressure to system pressure.
Cylinder

Accumulator

Check valve

Motor

Filter

Tank
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## Closed cynosure system

FIND THE DIFFERENCES

Cylinder Cylinder

## Directional Control Valve 4/3

Directional Control Valve 4/3

Accumulator
Accumulator Pressure regulating valve

Check valve
Check valve

Motor Motor

Filter Filter

Tank Tank
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## Opened cynosure system Closed cynosure system

Methods of Pressure and Flow Control

## The circuit control rod speed depends on the position of a flow

control valve in the hydraulic circuit. This is because the speed
control for rod of the cylinders depending on the requirements of
a job. There are 3 ways to control the speed of the rod when it
came out, namely: -
a. Meter-in
b. Meter-out
c. Bleed-off

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Meter-in

## Flow control valve mounted on the circuit at the input to

the hydraulic oil actuators such as cylinders or motors.
To allow seamless movement speed while entering the
cylinder rod, check valve installed as shown in figure
below.
When the pressure reaches the maximum cylinder
pressure, hydraulic oil will flow into the tank.

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Cylinder

Accumulator

Check valve

Motor

Filter

Tank

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Meter-in circuit
Meter-out

## The control valve is mounted on the circuit at the output

of hydraulic oil to the actuators such as cylinders or
motors.
To allow seamless movement speed while entering the
cylinder rod, check valve installed as shown in figure
below.
When the cylinder pressure reaches the maximum
pressure, oil will flow into the tank.
When the load decreases or small, back-pressure greater
than the pressure of the pump output.
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Cylinder

## Directional Control Valve 4/3

Accumulator

Check valve

Motor

Filter

Tank

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Meter-out circuit
Bleed-off

## Adjustable flow control valve mounted on the circuit at

the input of the hydraulic oil between the cylinder and
flow control valve as shown in the figure below.
The speed can be controlled by adjusting the flow
control valve.
If all the oil flowing back to the tank, the cylinder rod
will not move due to the pressure drop of the system.

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Cylinder

## Directional Control Valve 4/3

Accumulator

Check valve

Motor

Filter

Tank

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Bleed-off circuit
FIND THE DIFFERENCES

Cylinder Cylinder
Cylinder

control Valve

## One way flow control

One way flow control
Valve
Valve

## Directional Control Directional Control

Directional Control
Valve 4/3 Valve 4/3
Valve 4/3
Accumulat
Accumulat Accumulator
or
or

Check
Check valve Check valve valve

Motor
Motor
Motor
Filter
Filter
Filter
Tank
Tank
Tank
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## Meter-in circuit Meter-out circuit Bleed-off circuit

Problems in hydraulic system

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Most pumps are used or operated under maximum capacity to make it
durable. What will happen when used continuously to the maximum level. It
will affect the durability of the pump bearings.
For example, if a pump is designed to pump at a pressure of 150 bar and have
a lifespan of 4800 hours of bearings. If the pump is used to pump the fluid
with a pressure of 300 bar, it will affect the durability of the pump.

The above calculation shows that by doubling the pressure from 150 bar to
300 bar, the life of the pump will be reduced from 4800 hours to 600
hours. During pump operation the things that can cause increased pressure
must be taken into account. Increasing pressure on the pump may be caused
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## by improper maintenance, pump over load or hydraulic lines clogged.

b) Effects of over speed
By increasing the maximum speed of the pump, the pump will decrease the
life of the bearing. Let the pump as in the first example to twice its speed is
doubled, the following calculation shows a reduction in the life of the
pump. Let the ordinary life of the pump is 4800 hours.
By doubling twice the speed of the pump, pump life expectancy will drop by
half of the original life span. Therefore the maximum speed of the pump must
be observed to require the durability of the pump.

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c) Pump Cavitation Effects

## Pump cavitation is a problem that occurs due to improper maintenance of the

pump. Cavitation occurs when fluid does not fulfil all pump room. This means
there is space occupied by the air that will affect the operational efficiency of the
pump.

Cavitation occurs when the speed of the fluid produced by the pump too fast while
the inlet to the pump blockage. When the pump continues to operate that way the
cavitation in pumps. If the problem continues, the area will be filled by the steam
cavitation fluid produced due to the difference in pressure and temperature.

This cavitation problems will be complicated due to the cavitation pressure drop
will cause it to be filled by existing air contained in the fluid.

The pump will suffer damage when cavitation in the oil (low pressure) met with a
high-pressure fluid. Damage is caused by vibration resulting pump. Pump vibration
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can cause wear on pump components, and it can damage the pump.
d) Leak in the system

In most people, the hydraulic system is often dirty and leaking. With the design
and installation and maintenance perfect, generally leak system can be controlled
and often eliminated. If all circuits leak, we would not dare to fly.

## Hydraulic fluid leakage occurs internally and externally component.

Excessive internal leakage will reduce system efficiency and generate heat that can
damage the fluid. Little internal leakage is in the component as a lubricant compensator
control and others.

External leaks are not only dirty but also dangerous. The fluid can damage
components. High costs not only fluid lost to be replaced but added downtime and
performance also deteriorated.

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e) Other problems

## i) Problems That Occur At Cylinders

Problems Description
External Leaks Oil out through the end caps, gaskets.
Internal Leaks Oil flows through the clearance between the piston and
the cylinder when pressure is applied
the original condition. This is due to a internal
leak. Creeping also occurs to the directional control
valve on the cylinder 2-way.
'Sluggish' Due to the existing air in the cylinder. Air can be
compressed, so sluggish going to happen. The
inappropriate viscosity of the fluid used also lead to
'sluggish'.

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ii) Problems Caused By Fluids

## The problem of water-based fluids and oils

Easy to rust in a part of the system that is made of iron
Cause wear to the bearings, cylinders and other components because of lack of
lubrication
Chances are frozen in the cold weather
Large equipment is necessary

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End

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