Sunteți pe pagina 1din 37

Latin Nouns

Part I: The Elements of a Noun


When you are given a Latin Noun,
you are given four pieces of information
that together define the noun. These
identifying elements are:
1. Nominative Singular
2. Genitive Singular or Genitive
Singular Ending
3. Gender
4. Meaning in English
Latin Nouns
Parts of a Noun:
Examples:

Puella, -ae (f) Girl


Nom. S. Gen. S. Gender Meaning
Latin Nouns
Parts of a Noun:
Examples:

Bellum, -i (n) War


Nom. S. Gen. S. Gender Meaning
Latin Nouns
Parts of a Noun:
Examples:

Libertas, Libertatis (f)


Liberty
Nom. S. Gen. S. Gender
Meaning
Latin Nouns
Parts of a Noun:
Examples:

Portus, Ports (m) Harbor


Nom. S. Gen. S. Gender Meaning
Latin Nouns
Parts of a Noun:
Examples:

Dies, Die (f) Day


Nom. S. Gen. S. Gender Meaning
Latin Nouns
Parts of a Noun:
NB: Gender
Gender is simply an attribute of a noun and must
be learned and memorized along with the other
elements.
As a general rule:
1st Declension nouns are feminine, but there are
masculine exceptions.
2nd Declension nouns whose nominative ends in us
or
er are masculine; those whose nominative ends
in um are neuter.
3rd Declension nouns may be masculine, feminine,
or neuter.
Latin Nouns
Parts of a Noun
NB: Gender
4th Declension nouns are almost always
masculine, but there are exceptions,
most notably Manus, which is
feminine.
5th Declension nouns are almost always
feminine. Dies is usually feminine but
is sometimes treated as masculine.
Latin Nouns
Part II: Using Nouns

In order to use a noun correctly in


Latin, you must know how that
noun forms the different case
endings.
The DECLENSION a noun belongs to
tells us how it forms the endings.
Latin Nouns
Part II: Using Nouns
Step 1: Identify the Declension
To identify the declension of a Latin
noun, you must first look at the
genitive singular, the second
element given with a noun. The
Genitive singular will tell you which
Declensional pattern that noun
follows.
Latin Nouns
Part II: Using Nouns
Step 1: Identify the Declension
Here is the rule for identifying the
Declensions:
Genitive S. ae = 1st Declension
Genitive S. i = 2nd Declension
Genitive S. is = 3rd Declension
Genitive S. s = 4th Declension
Genitive S. e = 5th Declension
Latin Nouns
If youre still not sure which Declension the
noun is from, go to your noun chart and
move to the right along the row marked
Genitive Singular.

When you find the form of the Genitive


singular that matches the Genitive
singular of the noun youve been given,
trace the column up to find the Declension.
Latin Nouns
Part II: Using Nouns

NB: For the 2nd Declension, you will have


to know the gender as well as the
Genitive singular in order to choose the
right column.
The Rule on the Gender of the 2nd Declension
is:
Nom. S. us/-er = Masculine
Nom. S. um = Neuter
Latin Nouns
Part II: Using Nouns

NB: For the 3rd Declension, there is no


easy way to know whether a noun is
masculine, feminine, or neuter by
looking at the Nominative and Genitive
singular. For this reason,
THE GENDER MUST ALWAYS BE
MEMORIZED ALONG WITH THE
OTHER ELEMENTS OF A NOUN.
Latin Nouns
Part II: Using Nouns
Once youve identified the Declension,
you go to your noun ending chart and
find the column for that Declension.
Once you have the correct column,
remember that
THE WORD WILL NEVER HAVE AN
ENDING THAT IS NOT IN THAT
COLUMN. IT STAYS LOCKED IN.
The Declension Endings
1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th
Nom - a - us/er - um { } { } - us - - s
Gen - ae - - - is - is - s - s - e
Dat - ae - - - - - u - - e
Acc - am - um - um - em { } - um - - em
Abl - - - -e -e - - -

Nom - ae - -a - s -a - s - ua -
Gen - rum- rum - rum - um - um - uum - uum
rum
Dat - s - s - s - ibus - ibus - ibus - ibus
bus
Acc - s - s -a - s -a - s - ua -
Abl - s - s - s - ibus - ibus - ibus - ibus
bus
Latin Nouns
Step II: Adding the Case Endings to the
Noun

Once you have identified the


Declension of a noun, you have the
endings we add to that noun to put it
into the various cases. The next step
is correctly adding the case endings to
the noun.
Latin Nouns
Step II: Adding the Case Endings to the
Noun
Case endings are added to what we call
the NOUN STEM.
The Noun Stem is distinct and different
from the Nominative Singular.
You form the Noun Stem by dropping the
ending from the Genitive Singular of a
noun.
Latin Nouns
Step II: Adding the Case Endings to the
Noun

Examples:
Puella, Puellae Drop Genitive Puell-
Noun Stem
Puer, Pueri Drop Genitive Puer-
Noun Stem
Latin Nouns
Step II: Adding the Case Endings to the
Noun
Examples:
Liber, Libri Drop Genitive Libr-
Noun Stem
Imperium, Imperii Drop Genitive
Imperi-
Noun Stem
Latin Nouns
Step II: Adding the Case Endings to the Noun
Examples:
Libertas, Libertatis Drop Genitive
Libertat-
Noun Stem
Pax, Pacis Drop Genitive Pac-
Noun Stem
Lumen, Luminis Drop Genitive Lumin-
Noun Stem
Latin Nouns
Step II: Adding the Case Endings to the
Noun
NB: The noun stem is used in all cases except
the Nominative Singular. The Nominative
Singular may be based on a form that is not
the same as the noun stem.
You do NOT change the nominative singular
to make it match the Noun Stem and you
never add anything to the Nominative
Singular.
You use the Noun Stem from the Genitive
Singular on down the chart.
Latin Nouns
Step II: Adding the Case Endings to the
Noun
NB: The one place you will find a form on the
chart below the Nominative Singular that is
not based on the Noun Stem is the
ACCUSATIVE SINGULAR of Neuter Nouns.
Example: Nomen, Nominis (n) Drop Genitive
Nomin-
NOM Nomen Nomina Stem
GEN Nominis Nominum
DAT Nomini Nominibus
ACC Nomen Nomina
ABL Nomine Nominibus
Latin Nouns
To Review:
1. The DECLENSION of a noun tells us how
that noun changes its endings to signify the
different cases.
2. The Genitive Singular form of a noun tells
us which Declension a noun belongs to. The
Genitive Singular will always be the second
element given with a noun in your dictionary,
followed by the gender and meaning.
3. Once you know the Declension of a noun,
you add that Declensions endings onto the
NOUN STEM, which is formed by dropping
the ending from the Genitive Singular.
Latin Nouns
III: How to Proceed When You Encounter a
Latin Noun
1. Identify the Declension by looking at the
Genitive Singular. If you dont know what
the Genitive Singular is, look the noun up in
your book.
2. Once you know the Declension, find the
Declensions column on your noun chart
and, NEVER LEAVING THE COLUMN look
up and down the column until you find the
form that matches the ending of your noun.
Latin Nouns
IV. When You Are Asked to Decline or Give
a Particular Form of a Latin Noun
Always ask yourself:
1. What is the Genitive Singular of this noun?
2. Based on the Genitive Singular form, what
Declension does this noun belong to?
3. What is the nouns gender?
4. What is the Noun Stem of this noun?
Once you have the answers to these four
questions you will know how to decline the
noun correctly.
Latin Nouns: 4th and 5th
Declensions
Part II: Using Nouns
Step 1: Identify the Declension
Here is the rule for identifying the
Declensions:
Genitive S. s = 4th
Declension
Genitive S. e = 5th
Declension
Latin Nouns
Parts of a Noun:
Examples:

Portus, Ports (m) Harbor


Nom. S. Gen. S. Gender Meaning
Latin Nouns
Parts of a Noun:
Examples:

Dies, Die (f) Day


Nom. S. Gen. S. Gender Meaning
Latin Nouns: 4th and 5th
Declensions
Parts of a Noun
NB: Gender
4th Declension: Nouns whose Nominative
ends in us are almost always masculine,
but there are exceptions, most notably
Manus, which is feminine.
Nouns whose Nominative ends in u are
Neuter.
5th Declension nouns are almost always
feminine. Dies is usually feminine but is
sometimes treated as masculine.
Latin Nouns: 4th and 5th
Declensions
4th 5th
Masculine Neuter M/F
- us - - s
- s - s - e
- u - - e
- um - - em
- - -

- s - ua - s
- uum - uum - rum
- ibus - ibus - bus
- s - ua - s
- ibus - ibus - bus
Latin Nouns: 4th and 5th
Declensions
Exempla: 4th Declension Masculine
Exercitus, Exercits (m) Army
Exercitus Exercits
Exercits Exercituum
Exercitu Exercitibus
Exercitum Exercits
Exercit Exercitibus
Latin Nouns: 4th and 5th
Declensions
Exempla: 4th Declension Feminine
Manus, Mans (f) Hand
Manus Mans
Mans Manuum
Manu Manibus
Manum Mans
Man Manibus
Latin Nouns: 4th and 5th
Declensions
Exempla: 4th Declension Neuter
Corn, Corns (n) Horn
Corn Cornua
Corns Cornuum
Corn Cornibus
Corn Cornua
Corn Cornibus
Latin Nouns: 4th and 5th
Declensions
Exempla: 5th Declension
Dies, Di (f) Day
Dis Dis
Di Dirum
Di Dibus
Diem Dis
Di Dibus
Latin Nouns: 4th and 5th
Declensions
Exempla: 5th Declension
Spes, Spe (f) Hope
Sps Sps
Spe Sprum
Spe Spbus
Spem Sps
Sp Spbus
Latin Nouns: 4th and 5th
Declensions
Exempla: 5th Declension
Res, Re (f) Thing, Affair
Rs Rs
Re Rrum
Re Rbus
Rem Rs
R Rbus