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Chap 2

Design properties of materials


Attention to Detail. Solve every problem
methodically. Make your step-by-step
solution easy for the reader (the grader)
to understand, with the final solution at
the bottom.

Algebra. Solve every problem


algebraically before introducing numbers
and units.

Unit Conversions

Strong Work Ethic. If you copy


someone elses homework solutions
instead of working them out, you will fail
the exams, and you will have to repeat
the course. The only way to learn this
material is by practicing.

Ref: Barry Dupen (2014). Applied


Strength of Materials for Engineering
Technology. 6 ed.
Ductility
Main goals Elastic deformation
Elastic recovery
Engineering strain
Engineering stress
Hardness
Modulus of elasticity
Define, understand, use and measure Plastic deformation
Poissons ratio
Proportional limit
Shear
Tensile strength
Toughness
Yielding
Yield strength
Creep
2-2: Design properties of materials Compressive

How do materials respond to external loads?


Tensile
Stress and Strain
Tension
Compression
Shear
Torsion
Elastic deformation
Plastic Deformation
Yield Strength Torsion
Shear
Tensile Strength
Ductility
Toughness
Hardness
2-2: Design properties of materials: Tensile and Yield Strengths

A plot of Strain vs. Stress.


The diagram gives us the behavior of the
material and material properties.
Each material produces a different stress-
strain diagram.

Figure 2-3: Typical stress-


strain curve for steel
2-2: Design properties of materials: Young modulus

Compressive

Tensile Unload

Slope = modulus of

Stress
elasticity E

Load

Strain
2-2: Design properties of materials: Young modulus

The modulus of elasticity is a measure of the


stiffness of a material determined by the slope of Unload
the straight-line portion of the stress-strain curve.
Slope = modulus of

Stress
elasticity E
Hooke's law for Tensile Stress = E
E = Young's modulus or modulus of elasticity
(same units as , N/m2 or Pa)
Load

Strain
2-2: Design properties of materials: Young modulus

The modulus of elasticity is a measure


of the stiffness of a material determined
by the slope of the straight-line portion
of the stress-strain curve.

Hooke's law for Tensile Stress


= E
E = Young's modulus or modulus of elasticity
(same units as , N/m2 or Pa)

Higher E higher stiffness

Figure 25Modulus of elasticity


for different metals.
2-2: Design properties of materials: Ductility
2-2: Design properties of materials: Ductility
A ductile material is one that can be stretched, formed or
drawn to a significant degree before fracture.
A brittle material is one that fails suddenly under load
with little or no plastic deformation.
Percent elongation quantifies the ability of an element or
compound to stretch up to its breaking point.
It is measured by dividing the change in length (up to the
breaking point) by the original length, then multiplying
by 100.
A material that exhibits a percent elongation greater than lf l0
5.0 % is considered to be ductile percent elongation % EL 100
l0
A material that exhibits a percent elongation less than 5.0
% is considered to be brittle percent reduction %RA A 0 A f 100
A0

2-2: Design properties of materials: Ductility

lf l0
% EL 100
l0
Figure 27Measurement of percent elongation.
A0 Af
%RA 100
A0
2-2: Design properties of materials: Poissons ratio
Poisson's ratio is the signed ratio of
transverse strain to axial strain.
An aluminum rod has a cross-sectional area of 0.19635 in^2. An axial tensile load of 6000 lb. causes the rod to stretch
along its length, and shrink across its diameter. What is the diameter before and after loading? Poisson ration of Al=0.33 and
Youngs modulus E=10x10^6lb/in^2. Report the answer in inches.
2-2: Design properties of materials: Poissons ratio

Poisson's ratio is the signed ratio of transverse strain to axial strain.


x y

dimensionless.
z z
Sign: lateral strain opposite to longitudinal strain
Theoretical value: for isotropic material: 0.25
Maximum value: 0.50,
Typical value: 0.24 - 0.30
2-2: Design properties of materials: Shear Modulus
The ratio of the shearing stress to the shearing strain is
called the modulus of elasticity in shear or the modulus
of rigidity, denoted G
Shear stress to shear strain:
t = G ,
= tan = y / zo
G is Shear Modulus (Units: N/m2)

For isotropic material: E = 2G(1+) G ~ 0.4E

Single crystals are usually elastically anisotropic

Elastic behavior varies with crystallographic direction.


2-2: Design properties of materials: Strength and creep
Creep:
It is the tendency of a solid material to move slowly or
deform permanently under the influence of mechanical
stresses.
It can occur as a result of long-term exposure to high levels
of stress that are still below the yield strength of the
material.
Creep is important when the operating temperature exceeds
0.3Tm (Tm is the meting absolute temperature).
It is very important for critical systems such as combustion
engine, furnace, steam turbines, nuclear reactors
2-2: Design properties of materials: Strength and creep
Strength
Measure of the material property to resist deformation and to maintain its shape
It is quantified in terms of yield stress or ultimate tensile strength .
y ult
High carbon steels and metal alloys have higher strength than pure metals.
Ceramic also exhibit high strength characteristics.

Creep:
It is the tendency of a solid material to move slowly or deform permanently under the influence of
mechanical stresses. It can occur as a result of long-term exposure to high levels of stress that are still
below the yield strength of the material.
Creep is important when the operating temperature exceeds 0.3Tm (Tm is the meting absolute
temerature). It is very important for critical systems such as combustion engine, furnance, steam
turbines, nuclear reactors
2-2: Design properties of materials: Hardness
Material Brinell Hardness

Measure of the material property to resist Pure Aluminum 15

indentation, abrasion and wear. Pure Copper 35

It is quantified by hardness scale such as Rockwell Mild Steel 120

304 Stainless Steel 250


and Brinell hardness scale that measure
Hardened Tool Steel 650/700
indentation / penetration under a load.
Hard Chromium Plate 1000

Hardness and Strength correlate well because both Chromium Carbide 1200

properties are related to inter-molecular Tungsten Carbide 1400

bonding. A high-strength material is typically Titanium Carbide 2400

Diamond 8000
resistant to wear and abrasion.
Sand 1000

A comparison of hardness of some typical materials:


2-2: Design properties of materials: Toughness
Measure of the material ability to absorb energy without failure.
Toughness: ability to absorb energy up to fracture (Area under
the strain-stress curve up to fracture)
It is measured by two methods
Integration of stress strain curve
Slow absorption of energy
Absorbed energy per unit volume
unit : (lb/in) *(in/in) =lbin/in
Charpy test (See Figure 2-11 in the book)
Ability to absorb energy of an impact without fracturing.
Impact toughness can be measured.
2-2: Design properties of materials: Plastic deformation
stress not proportional to strain
deformation is not reversible
deformation occurs by breaking and re-arrangement of atomic bonds (crystalline materials by
motion of defects)

bonds
stretch planes
& planes still
shear sheared

plastic
elastic + plastic

F
2-2: Design properties of materials: Yielding

The stress vs. strain curve includes both an upper and lower yield point.
The yield strength is defined in this case as the average stress at the lower yield point.
Yield strength and tensile strength vary with thermal
and mechanical treatment, impurity levels, etc. Stress
Variability related to behavior of dislocations (Elastic
moduli are relatively insensitive)
Yield and tensile strengths and modulus of elasticity:
Decrease with increasing temperature.
Ductility increases with temperature.

Strain
Stress-Strain Diagram

Elastic Region (Point 1 2)


The material will return to its original shape after the material is unloaded (like a rubber
band).
The stress is linearly proportional to the strain in this region.
: Stress (psi)
E or E E : Elastic modulus (Youngs Modulus) (psi)
: Strain (in/in)
Point 2 : Yield Strength : a point at which permanent deformation occurs. ( If it is passed, the
material will no longer return to its original length.)

Yield point: Where strain deviates from being proportional to stress (the proportional limit)
Yield stress, y , usually more important than tensile strength. Once yield stress has been passed,
structure has deformed beyond acceptable limits.
Stress-Strain Diagram
The ELASTIC Range Means:
The strain, or elongation over a unit length, will behave linearly (as in y=mx +b) and thus
predictable.
The material will return to its original shape (Point 1) once an applied load is removed.
The stress within the material is less than what is required to create a plastic behavior
(deform or stretch significantly without increasing stress).
Stress-Strain Diagram
Plastic Region (Point 2 3)
If the material is loaded beyond the yield strength, the material will not return to its
original shape after unloading.
It will have some permanent deformation.
If the material is unloaded at Point 3, the curve will proceed from Point 3 to Point 4. The
slope will be the as the slope between Point 1 and 2.
The distance between Point 1 and 4 indicates the amount of permanent deformation.
Stress not proportional to strain
Deformation is not reversible
Deformation occurs by breaking and re-arrangement of atomic bonds (crystalline materials
by motion of defects)
Stress-Strain Diagram
Strain Hardening
If the material is loaded again from Point 4, the curve will follow back to Point 3 with the
same Elastic Modulus(slope).
The material now has a higher yield strength of Point 4.
Raising the yield strength by permanently straining the material is called Strain Hardening.

Hardness measure of materials resistance to localized plastic deformation


Mohs scale ability of a material to scratch another material: from 1 (softest = talc)
to 10 (hardest = diamond).
Tensile strength and hardness degree of resistance to plastic deformation.
Hardness proportional to tensile strength(Proportionality constant depends on material).
Stress-Strain Diagram

Tensile Strength (Point 3)


The largest value of stress on the diagram is called Tensile Strength(TS) or Ultimate
Tensile Strength (UTS)
It is the maximum stress which the material can support without breaking.

Fracture (Point 5)
If the material is stretched beyond Point 3, the stress decreases as necking and non-
uniform deformation occur.
Fracture will finally occur at Point 5.
Factors effecting Material Properties

Temperature
Increasing temperature will:
Decrease Modulus of Elasticity (As Long as Structure Does Not Change)
Decrease Yield Strength
Decrease Ultimate Tensile Strength
Decrease Hardness
Increase Ductility
Decrease Brittleness
Environment
Sulfites, Chlorine, Oxygen in water,
Radiation, Pressure
Ways to Effect / Alter Material Properties
Alloying (Adding other elements to alter the molecular properties):
- Steel: Carbon, chromium, molybdenum, nickel, tungsten, manganese
- Aluminum: Copper, manganese, silicon, zinc, magnesium
Thermal Treatments (Application of heat over varying time):
Annealing:
- Heating higher than its critical temperature then cooling slowly.
- Improves hardness, strength, and ductility.
- Ships hulls are annealed.
Hardening:
- Heating higher than its critical temperature then
cooling rapidly.
- Improves hardness.
- Increases internal stresses, may cause cracking.
Ways to Effect / Alter Material Properties
Thermal Treatments (Application of heat over varying time):
Tempering:
- Steel is heated below the critical temperature and cooled slowly.
- Used with hardening to reduce the internal stresses.

Hot-Working:
- Forming of shapes while material is hot.
- Less internal stresses due to annealing (change in the molecular structure).

Cold-Working:
- Forming shapes while material is cold.
- Causes internal stresses, resulting in a stronger shape.
Corrosion & Corrosion Protection

Corrosion is the destruction of metals due to oxidation or other chemical reactions.

Corrosion Protection:
- Design to eliminate conditions favorable to corrosion

- Cathodic Protection
- Charging the metal to slow/ stop reaction
with other elements
- Providing a sacrificial metal to give up ions
instead of the structure giving up ions (and
corroding)
Example:

Mooring line length =100 ft


diameter=1.0 in
Axial loading applied=25,000 lb
Elongation due to loading=1.0 in
1) Find the normal stress.
F 25,000 lb
2
31,800 psi
A 0.785 in
A r 2 (0.5in )2 0.785 in 2

2) Find the strain.


e 1in
0.00083 (in / in )
Lo 100 ft 12in
1 ft
Example: y 60,000 psi
- Salvage crane is lifting an object of 20,000 lb.
UT 70,000 psi
- Characteristics of the cable
diameter=1.0 in, length prior to lifting =50 ft E 35 106 psi
1) Find the normal stress in the cable.
F 20,000 lb
2
25,478 psi
A 0.785 in
(A r 2 (0.5 in ) 2 0.785 in 2 )
2) Find the strain.
25,478 psi
0.000728 (in / in )
E 35 10 psi
6

e
3) Determine the cable stretch
in inches. Lo
12in
e Lo (0.000728 in / in) (50 ft ) 0.44 in
1 ft
Classification of metal and alloy

The Aluminum Association


American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI)
Copper Development Association
Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)
Material selection
One of the most important tasks for a designer is the specification of the material which any
individual component of a product is to be made. The designer should consider the
interrelationships among the following:
The functions of the component
The components shape
The material from which the component is to be made
Requirements for performance
The nature of the force to be applied
The types and magnitude of stresses created by the applied forces
The allowable deformation of the component at critical points
Interfaces with other components of the product
The environment in which the component is to be operate
Physical size and weight of the component
Aesthetics expected for the component and the overall product
Cost
Anticipated manufacturing processes available
Material selection
One of the most important tasks for a designer is the specification of the material which any
individual component of a product is to be made. The designer should consider the
interrelationships among the following:
The functions of the component
The components shape
The material from which the component is to be made
Requirements for performance
Key material properties that are important
Strength
Stiffness
Weight and mass
Ductility
Toughness
Creep performance
Corrosion