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Coordinates cardiovascular, respiratory,

digestive, urinary and reproductive functions
Preganglionic neurons in the CNS send axons to
synapse on ganglionic neurons in autonomic
ganglia outside the CNS
Divisions of the ANS

Sympathetic division (thoracolumbar, fight or

Thoracic and lumbar segments
Parasympathetic division (craniosacral, rest and
Preganglionic fibers leaving the brain and
sacral segments
The Sympathetic Division
Sympathetic division anatomy

Preganglionic neurons between segments

T1 and L2
Ganglionic neurons in ganglia near
vertebral column
Specialized neurons in adrenal glands
Figure 16.3 The Organization of the
Sympathetic Division of the ANS

Figure 16.3
Sympathetic ganglia

Sympathetic chain ganglia (paravertebral

Collateral ganglia (prevertebral ganglia)
Figure 16.4 Sympathetic Pathways

Figure 16.4a
Figure 16.4 Sympathetic Pathways

Figure 16.4b
Figure 16.4 Sympathetic Pathways

Figure 16.4c
Organization and anatomy of the sympathetic

Segments T1-L2, ventral roots give rise to

myelinated white ramus
Leads to sympathetic chain ganglia
Figure 16.5 The Distribution of Sympathetic

PLAY Animation: The sympathetic division

Figure 16.5
Postganglionic fibers

Rejoin spinal nerves and reach their destination

by way of the dorsal and ventral rami
Those targeting structures in the thoracic cavity
form sympathetic nerves
Go directly to their destination
Abdominopelvic viscera

Sympathetic innervation via preganglionic fibers

that synapse within collateral ganglia
Splanchic nerves
Abdominopelvic viscera

Celiac ganglion
Innervates stomach, liver, gall bladder,
pancreas, spleen
Superior mesenteric ganglion
Innervates small intestine and initial portion of
large intestine
Inferior mesenteric ganglion
Innervates kidney, urinary bladder, sex organs,
and final portion of large intestine
Sympathetic activation

In crises, the entire sympathetic division

Sympathetic activation
Affects include increased alertness, energy and
euphoria, increased cardiovascular and
respiratory activities, elevation in muscle tone,
mobilization of energy resources
Neurotransmitters and sympathetic function

Stimulation of sympathetic division has two

distinct results
Release of ACh or NE at specific locations
Secretion of E and NE into general circulation
Most postganglionic fibers are adrenergic, a few
are cholinergic or nitroxidergic
Two types of receptors are alpha receptors and
beta receptors
Sympathetic ganglionic neurons end in
telodendria studded with varicosities filled with
Figure 16.6 Sympathetic Variosities

Figure 16.6
The Parasympathetic Division
Parasympathetic division

Preganglionic neurons in the brainstem and

sacral segments of spinal cord
Ganglionic neurons in peripheral ganglia located
within or near target organs
Figure 16.7 The Organization of the
Parasympathetic Division of the ANS

Figure 16.7
Organization and anatomy of the
parasympathetic division

Preganglionic fibers leave the brain as cranial

nerves III, VI, IX, X
Sacral neurons form the pelvic nerves
Figure 16.8 The Distribution of Parasympathetic

Figure 16.8
Parasympathetic activation

Effects produced by the parasympathetic division

food processing
energy absorption
Neurotransmitters and parasympathetic

All parasympathetic fibers release ACh

Short-lived response as ACH is broken down by
AChE and tissue cholinesterase
Postsynaptic membranes have two kinds of
Sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions

Widespread influence on visceral and somatic
Innervates only visceral structures serviced by
cranial nerves or lying within the
abdominopelvic cavity
Dual innervation = organs that receive input
from both systems
Anatomy of dual innervation

Sympathetic and parasympathetic systems

intermingle to form autonomic plexuses
Cardiac plexus
Pulmonary plexus
Esophageal plexus
Celiac plexus
Inferior mesenteric plexus
Hypogastric plexus
Figure 16.9 The Autonomic Plexuses

Figure 16.9
Comparison of the two divisions

Important physiological and functional

differences exist
Figure 16.10 Summary: The Anatomical
Differences between the Sympathetic and
Parasympathetic Divisions

Figure 16.10
Integration and Control of Autonomic Functions
Figure 16.11 Visceral Reflexes

Figure 16.11
Higher levels of autonomic control

Activity in the ANS is controlled by centers in the

brainstem that deal with visceral functioning
Figure 16.12 Levels of Autonomic Control

Figure 16.12
Figure 16.13 A Comparison of Somatic and
Autonomic Function

Figure 16.13
Figure 16.14 Memory Storage

Figure 16.14

Deep sleep, the body relaxes and cerebral cortex activity

is low
REM sleep active dreaming occurs
The reticular activating system (RAS) is important to
arousal and maintenance of consciousness
Figure 16.16 The Reticular Activating System

Figure 16.16