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Motivation is the driving force

within individuals that implies


them to action.
TYPES OF MOTIVATION

Positive
Motivation
Negative
Motivation
Extrinsic
3
MODEL OF MOTIVATION
NEEDS
Innate Needs (Biogenic or Primary)
Physiological needs
Acquired Needs (Psychological or
Secondary) Learned from culture or
environment.
Extrinsic Needs Motivates an
individual to achieve end results.
Intrinsic Needs His/ her own comfort.
GOALS
Generic Goals
the general categories of goals that consumers see as a
way to fulfill their needs
Product-Specific Goals
the specifically branded products or services that
consumers select as their goals
THE SELECTION OF GOALS

Personal experiences
Physical capacity
Prevailing cultural norms & values
Goals accessibility in the physical and
social environment
Individuals characteristics
INTERDEPENDENCE OF NEEDS AND GOALS

Needs and goals are interdependent;


neither exists without the other.

Individuals are more aware of their


physiological needs than are of their
psychological needs.
MOTIVATIONS AND GOALS
Positive Motivation
A driving force toward some object or condition
Leads to an Approach Goal
A positive goal toward which behavior is directed
Negative Motivation
A driving force away from some object or
condition
Leads to an Avoidance Goal
A negative goal from which behavior is directed
away
THE DYNAMIC NATURE OF MOTIVATION
Needs are never fully satisfied
New needs emerge as old needs are satisfied
A given need may lead totally different goals
Consumers are more aware of their goals than their needs
Consumer values, personality and self-concept influence
consumer goals
Consumers have multiple needs
Pre-potent need
Motives are difficult to infer from behaviour
Past experiences (success/failure) influence goals
Defense Mechanisms
THE DYNAMIC NATURE OF MOTIVATION
Motives may conflict with each other
Three types of motivational conflict
Approach-approach: when a consumer is drawn towards two
positive goals
Approach-avoidance: when the goal object has both positive and
negative qualities
You are both drawn toward and away from the object

Avoidance-avoidance: when the consequences of buying an object is


unpleasant, but the purchase does not lead to any pleasure
THE DYNAMIC NATURE OF MOTIVATION
Motives can be aroused in many ways
Physiological arousal
Hunger, thirst
Emotional arousal
daydreaming
Cognitive arousal
Random thoughts
Environmental arousal
Cues in the environment
PHILOSOPHIES CONCERNED WITH AROUSAL OF MOTIVES

Behaviorist School
Behavior is response to stimulus
Elements of conscious thoughts are to be ignored
Consumer does not act, but reacts
Cognitive School
Behavior is directed at goal achievement
Needs and past experiences are reasoned,
categorized, and transformed into attitudes and
beliefs
DEFENSE MECHANISM
Methods by which people mentally redefine
frustrating situations to protect their self-images
and their self-esteem.
DEFENSE MECHANISMS
Aggression
Rationalization
Regression
Withdrawal
Projection
Identification
Domination
MASLOWS HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
MURRAYS LIST OF PSYCHOGENIC NEEDS

Needs Associated with Inanimate Objects:


Acquisition, Conservancy, Order, Retention, Construction

Needs Reflecting Ambition, Power, Accomplishment, and


Prestige:
Superiority, Achievement, Recognition, Exhibition
Needs Connected with Human Power:
Dominance, Deferrence, Autonomy
Sado-Masochistic Needs :
Aggression

Needs Concerned with Affection between


People:
Affiliation, Rejection, Play

Needs Concerned with Social Intercourse:


exhibition
MCCLELLANDS TRIO OF NEEDS
Power
individuals desire to control environment
Affiliation
need for friendship, acceptance, and
belonging
Achievement
need for personal accomplishment
closely related to egoistic and self-
actualization needs
MID-RANGE THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
Psychological Reactance
Motivational arousal due to threat of
behavioural freedom
Opponent Process Theory
Extreme initial reactions may be followed by
extreme opposite reaction
Priming
Small amounts of initial stimuli will lead to desire
for more
extreme amounts of exposure to same stimulus will
lead to withdrawal
Hedonic Consumption
Need to gain pleasure through the senses
Explains attraction to scary rides,
adventure tours, etc
Optimum Stimulation Level
Desire to maintain a certain level of
encouragement that the consumer
considers to be optimal
MEASUREMENT OF MOTIVES
Researchers rely on a combination of
techniques
Combination of behavioral, subjective,
and qualitative data
Construction of a measurement scale
can be complex
QUALITATIVE MOTIVATIONAL RESEARCH
Metaphor analysis
Storytelling
Word association and sentence
completion
Thematic apperception test
Drawing pictures and photo-sorts