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CONSCIOUSNESS AND DREAMS

SLEEP AND DREAMS


CONSCIOUSNESS
Consciousness refers to an organisms awareness of itself and its
surroundings.
Levels of awareness:
TOP: Controlled processes require attention (and interfere with other
functions)
MIDDLE: Automatic processes require minimal attention (such as riding your
bike)
LOWEST: Minimal or no awareness of the environment
DIFFERENT STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS
Consciousness covers the many different levels of awareness of
ones thoughts and feelings. It might include creating images in
ones mind, following one's thought processes , or having unusual
emotional occurrences.

[You can tell if your conscious, if you are aware of your


existence and your own thoughts.]
Continuum of Consciousness refers to a broad range of
experiences , from being sharply alert to being completely
unaware and unresponsive.
CONTROLLED PROCESSES

Controlled Processes are actions that


require full awareness ,attention, and
focus in order to complete your task. The
focused attention required in completing
controlled processes usually interferes
with the execution of activities in action.
AUTOMATIC PROCESSES

Automatic processes are


activities that only need
minimal focus, and do not
distract you from the
other activity thats
occurring.
DAYDREAMING

Daydreaming is when you


fantasize or dream while you are
awake. This state requires minimal
alertness .
ALTERED STATES

Altered states of consciousness are


achieved when using psychoactive
drugs, meditation, hypnosis or lack
of sleep. These all create a state
that is different from the usual
consciousness.
SLEEP AND DREAMS

Sleep has five important stages that Dreaming occurs when we are
involve the many types of asleep and is a type of
consciousness and awareness ,etc. consciousness. In our dreams, we
witness a a handful of surprising
visual and auditory detailed images.
These dreams can be related in odd
ways and are usually in color.
UNCONSCIOUS AND IMPLICIT MEMORY

Unconsciousness is the lack of Implied and unspoken, implicit


memory involves mental and
sensory awareness and alertness, emotional processes that we are not
that can be induced by disease, conscious of. These processes affect
feelings, actions and thoughts in a
trauma, anesthesia and or a blow to bias way.
the head.
CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS
Many of our behaviors display rhythmic variation.
Circadian rhythms
One cycle lasts about 24 hours (e.g. sleep-waking cycle).
Light is an external cue that can set the circadian rhythm.
Some circadian rhythms are endogenous suggesting the existence of an
internal (biological) clock.
HYPNOSIS
Hypnosis is an altered state of heightened suggestibility.
The hypnotic state is characterized by:
Narrow and focused attention
Imagination
Passive receptive attitude
Reduced reaction to pain
Heightened suggestibility
MYTHS OF HYPNOSIS

People can be hypnotized against their will.


People will do immoral things while hypnotized.
Hypnosis improves memory recall.
Hypnotized persons have special strength.
Hypnosis is fake.
ALTERED STATES

Meditation refers to a set of techniques that promote a


heightened sense of awareness.
can involve body movements and posture, focusing of attention on a
focal point, or control of breathing
can induce relaxation, lower blood pressure, and can be associated
with a sense of euphoria
WHY DO PEOPLE ALTER CONSCIOUSNESS?

Sacred rituals
Social interactions
Individual rewards
BIOLOGICAL CLOCKS & ITS THEIR LOCATION

Biological clocks are a timing system Biological Clocks are located in


embedded in our genetics that suprachiasmatic nucleus , which
control and regulate physiological makes up the hypothalamus in the
responses for different periods of brain.
time.
CIRCADIAN PROBLEMS AND TREATMENTS
The most common circadian problems are accidents, jet lag, and
resetting the clock
melatonin ( a hormone given by the pineal gland), has proved
to help those with disrupted circadian clocks, sleep better.
Light therapy is used to reset the circadian clocks and to treat
those who suffer from sleeping disorders.
SLEEP
Sleep is a behavior AND an altered state of consciousness.

We spend about a third of our lives in sleep.

A basic issue is to understand the function of sleep.


MYTHS OF SLEEP
Everyone needs 8 hrs of sleep per night to maintain
good health.

Learning of complicated subjects such as calculus can be


done during sleep.

Some people never dream.


Dreams last only a few seconds.
Genital arousal during sleep reflects dream content.
May be a useful index of physical versus psychological causes
of impotence in males
EEG CHANGES DURING SLEEP
Electrophysiological instruments can be used in
the sleep laboratory to assess the
physiological changes that occur during an
episode of sleep.
STAGES OF SLEEP

The stages of sleep are when the electrical activity


and physiological
responses ,in the brain ,changes through the many periods of sleep.
STAGES OF SLEEP
Hypnagogic state: pre-sleep stage marked by
visual, auditory and kinesthetic sensations.
Non-REM
Stage one
Stage two
Stage three
Stage four
REM: rapid eyes movements, high frequency brain
waves, paralysis of large muscles and dreaming
SLEEP STAGES DURING A NIGHT
FUNCTIONS OF SLEEP

REM Sleep:
Consolidation of new memories
Role in learning
Absent in lower mammals
Non-REM sleep
People deprived of all sleep show greater time spent in non-REM
sleep the next night.
REM SLEEP

Rapid eye movement, [REM], is when your eyes move from side to side, under
your lids.
It makes up the remaining 20% of sleep time.
Dreaming takes place in this state.
NON- REM SLEEP
Non- REM sleep( 80% of 3: You are asleep for 30-45
your sleep) is separated into minutes
stages 1,2,3, and 4 4: The deepest sleep occurs in
1: the shift from being awake this stage. [It is the hardest to
to sleep and lasts 1-7 be awakened from]
minutes. You gradually lose
alertness to your surroundings Heart rate , respiration ,
and experience drifting temperature, and blood flow
thoughts. to the brain decrease by
growth hormone.
2: The start of sleep
SEQUENCE OF STAGES

Usually REM occurs after the second stage of sleep.


You go through the sleeping stages and REM ,approximately 6-7 times a
night.
EFFECTS OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION

Reduced immunity
Mood alteration
Reduced concentration and motivation
Increased irritability
Lapses in attention
Reduced motor skills
THEORIES OF SLEEP

Repair/Restoration
Sleep allows for recuperation from physical, emotional, and
intellectual fatigue.

Evolutionary/Circadian
Sleep evolved to conserve energy and protect our ancestors from
predators.
SLEEP DURATION IN MAMMALS
THEORIES OF DREAMING

Psychoanalytic: Dreams represent disguised symbols of


repressed desires and anxieties.
Manifest versus latent content
Biological: Dreams represent random activation of brain
cells during sleep.
Cognitive: Dreams help to sift and sort the events of the
day.
SLEEP DISORDERS
DYSOMNIAS
Insomnia refers to a difficulty in getting to sleep or
remaining asleep and has many causes.
Situational: related to anxiety
Drug-induced: Use of sleeping pills or other drugs can result
in insomnia
Sleep apnea: person stops breathing and is awakened
when blood levels of carbon dioxide stimulate
breathing.
Narcolepsy: Sleep appears at odd times.
Sleep attack: urge to sleep during the day
PARASOMNIAS

Nightmares: Anxiety-arousing dreams generally occurring during REM sleep.


Night Terrors: Abrupt awakenings from NREM sleep accompanied by intense
physiological arousal and feelings of panic.
How much sleep do I need?- infants 17 hours, Toddlers 10 hours ,
Adolescence and Adulthood 10 hours, Old Age 6.h Hours.
Why do I sleep?- Repair Theory- sleep is mainly the restorative process that
helps repair the body. Adaptive theory- sleep is mainly used to protect early
humans & animals from nocturnal predators.
What If I Miss Sleep?- Sleep deprivation weakens the bodys immune system,
which produces a risk of contracting viruses and infections. It also causes
irritability, unhappiness, hallucinations and problems performing cognitive
activates.
What Causes Sleep??- VPN- Ventrolateral preoptic nucleus ( located in the
hypothalamus) releases a neurotransmitter that deactivates the areas of the
brain that keep one awake. The Reticular Formation ,that alerts the forebrain
and prepares it to absorb the information given by the senses. The reticular
formation is very important in making the state of wakefulness. Finally, going
to sleep really is based on your circadian clock, VPN, neurotransmitters and
chemicals in the brain and the circadian rhythm.
DRUGS
DRUGS
Drugs are chemicals that have biological effects within the body.
Psychoactive drugs are chemicals that change conscious
awareness or perception.
Depressants slow down the nervous system.
Stimulants speed up the nervous system.
Opiates relieve pain.
Hallucinogens alter sensory perception .
DRUG USE AND ABUSE

Drug abuse: Drug use that causes emotional or


physical harm to the user.
Addiction results from repeated drug use.
Tolerance: more drug is required.
Drug abstinence leads to withdrawal symptoms.
Drug dependence can be:
Physical: withdrawal reactions are noted when drug use is
terminated.
Psychological: associated with a craving for the drug
EXAMPLES OF DRUG TYPES

Depressants: alcohol, barbiturates

Stimulants: caffeine, amphetamine


cocaine, nicotine

Opiates heroin, morphine

Hallucinogens LSD, mescaline, marijuana


DEPRESSANTS
Alcohol is particularly dangerous when combined with barbiturates.
abuse can lead to serious losses in cognitive functioning
involved in nearly half of all murders, suicides, spousal abuse and accidental deaths in
the united states
is the third leading cause of birth defects
STIMULANTS

Nicotine is considered the single most preventable cause of death and disease

Cocaine causes physical damage, severe addiction and psychological


dependence.
Cocaine can interfere with the electrical activity of the heart.
OPIATES

Narcotics, such as morphine and heroin, produce their effects by mimicking


endorphins.
HALLUCINOGENS

LSD- associated with bad trips


Marijuana has some properties of depressants, narcotics and hallucinogens at
higher doses.
CLUB DRUGS

MDMA- high doses can cause dangerous increases in body temperature and
blood pressure leading to seizures, heart attacks and strokes; can produces
long lasting damage to the brain.
HOW DRUGS WORK
DRUG ACTION ON NEURONS
FACTORS THAT LEAD TO DRUG ABUSE

Positive associations: the drug is portrayed in a positive


fashion in the media.
Biological factors: the drug induces a pleasurable state
(usually related to dopamine activity in the brain).
Prevention of withdrawal: person continues to take the
drug to avoid withdrawal effects.
Conditioning of drug craving: cues associated with drug
use can elicit craving for the drug.