Sunteți pe pagina 1din 47

Fault Zone Analysis

AIR GAP
Doug Swinskey
PdMA Corporation
Motor Reliability Technical Conference
May 9-11, 2006 Clearwater Beach, FL
Objectives
Discuss Air Gap Fault Mechanisms
Compare Lap Wound vs. Concentric
Analysis Techniques
Fault Mechanisms
Five Basic Types
Rotor O. D. is eccentric to axis of rotation
Stator bore is eccentric
Rotor and stator are round but do not have
the same axis of rotation
Rotor and shaft are round but do not have
the same axis
Any combination of the above
Fault Mechanism
Static Eccentricity
Soft foot

Misaligned end bell

Cocked bearing

Oil bath bearing


Fault Mechanism

Dynamic Eccentricity
Loose bearing

Warped shaft
Fault Mechanisms
Uneven Magnetic
Pull
Increased Vibration
Possible Pull-Over
During Start Up
Rotor/Stator Rub
Fault Mechanisms
Uneven Magnetic
Pull
Increased Vibration
Possible Pull-Over
During Start Up
Rotor/Stator Rub
Pull-Over at Start Up
Appears as random
strikes on both the
stator and rotor
Magnetic pull acting
upon the rotor varies
as the square of the
difference
If the gap N X is twice
that at X then the
magnetic pull at X is
going to be 4X stronger
Analysis
MCE
Rotor Influence
Check (RIC)
EMAX
Eccentricity test
How do you interpret a RIC?
Sine
Do you see a sinewave
Possible Low Influence Rotor (LIR)
Characteristics
Repeated distortion in all three phases
Alignment
Is the graph misaligned across the page
Min/Max inductance of each phase over two pole
faces
Peak-to-Peak
Possibly a concentric wound rotor
Stator fault indicated
Alignment
What condition is indicated by
this RIC?

Misalignment
Peak-to-Peak Inductance
Note the change in
the peak-to-peak
inductance from the
first pole group to the
second.
Software Alerts
Does the motor have Lap or Concentric
wound windings?

How does this affect RIC results?


What is indicated by this RIC?
Ind 1 to 2

Ind 1 to 3

Ind 2 to 3

Evaluate the
Peak-to-Peak
Single Pole Face
Inductive Imbalance
The Second Pole Face

Now look at the


peak-to-peak of
each phase
The Second Pole Face
360 Degree Concentric
360 Degree Concentric
What is the difference between a
Concentric Wound and Lap Wound stator?
What is the difference between a Concentric
Wound and Lap Wound stator?
Peak-to-Peak Evaluation
EMAX Eccentricity Analysis
EMAX Air Gap Evaluation
Eccentricity Test
Evaluation (the 1st and 3rd sidebands
around the eccentricity frequency)
depends on a number of variables
Line Frequency
Number of Rotor Bars
Motor Speed
What do we already know?
Air Gap Evaluation
Eccentricity Test
Evaluation of the eccentricity spectrum
depends on a number of variables
Line Frequency (sidebands that develop
will be odd multiples of the line frequency)
Number of Rotor Bars and Motor Speed
(used to determine the eccentricity
frequency at which the sidebands will
appear)
Eccentricity Frequency
fEcc = B (fShaft)

Where: fEcc = Eccentricity Frequency


B = Number of Rotor Bars
fShaft = Shaft frequency which is
equal to RPM/60
Eccentricity Indications
Look for at least 4 peaks (typically
located between 600-2000 Hz)
Not harmonics of line frequency
120 Hz apart on graph (60 Hz systems) or
100 Hz apart (50 Hz systems) or two times
the input frequency
>20 dB above noise level
Caution and Alarm
PdMA Corporation
Average Noise level + 15dB = Caution

Average Noise level + 20dB = Alarm


Eccentricity Test
Motor With Eccentricity
Eccentricity Test
Software Features
Harmonics markers
Manual eccentricity markers
Estimate number of rotor bars

When using the software features for manual


eccentricity markers or the estimate bars, the
vertical marker on the spectrum is placed on the
first sideband to the left of the expected
eccentricity frequency.
Eccentricity Test
VFD Application
4 Peaks!

Line Frequency
48 Hz
Eccentricity Test
VFD Application

48 Hz Harmonic Markers
Eccentricity Test
VFD Application

48 Hz Harmonic Markers
Eccentricity Test
VFD Application

Manual Marker for 4 Peaks 96 Hz Apart


Eccentricity Test
VFD Application

Four Peaks 96 Hz Apart


Eccentricity Test
VFD Application

Bars 82

Estimate bars
when the
speed is known
Pre/Post Overhaul Testing
Pre/Post Overhaul Testing
Motor was sent for overhaul/repair
Rotor was rebuilt
All critical dimensions were verified and
satisfactory
74 Rotor Bars
Pre Overhaul Testing

FP = 5.9 HZ
Pre Overhaul Testing

SWIRL EFFECT
Pre Overhaul Testing
Post Overhaul Testing
Post Overhaul Testing
What Happened?
After installation the pump was released for
operation. Unfortunately the pump was still
isolated from the system with the discharge
valve shut. The pump was estimated to have
operated in that condition for over a day. It
was discovered when the technicians
performing the EMAX tests went to inspect the
motor after seeing the eccentricity results.
Helpful Hints
Rotor Influence Check
Slow motors require an additional pole face
Use the balance of inductance to determine if
you should continue the test
Eccentricity Test
For VFD powered motors, strobe/tach speed
The X16 scale will fit 4 peaks
Summary

Correlate Test Data


Investigate All Possible External Causes
Use data to make better discisions