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Magnetism is one aspect of the

combined electromagnetic force.

It refers to physical phenomena
arising from the force caused by
magnets, objects that produce
fields that attract or repel other

An electrical current loop

generates a region of physical
attraction, or Magnetic Field,
represented by a set of magnetic
flux line. The magnitude and Simple illustration of
direction of magnetic field at any magnetism shows the
given point is given by H, a vector magnetic field generated
quantity around an electrical
current loop
A magnetic material can generate
a magnetic field without an
electrical current.

As we all know
opposite attracts
and same poles
For free space surrounding a magnetic field source, we can define an
Induction, B, whose magnitude is the flux density The induction is
related to magnetic field strength, H, by

B = H

Where is the permeability of the vacuum

When solid is inserted to magnetic field, where is the solid


B = H
It is useful to note that this basic equation is for magnetic behavior is a direct
analog of the more commonly expressed relationship for electronic behavior,
Ohms law

V = IR

And combine with it the definitions of resistivity and conductivity.

= and =

We obtain an alternative form for Ohms law:

I/A is the current density and V/l is the voltage gradient.
We then see that the magnetic induction is analogous to
current density and the magnetic field strength is
analogous to voltage gradient, with permeability
corresponding to conductivity. The presence of the solid
has changed the induction. The separate contribution of
solid is illustrated by:

B = H = (H+M)

Where M is called magnetization of the solid and the

M represents the extra magnetic field associated
with the solid.


B = webers*/m2
= webers/ampere-meter
H and M = amperes/m
Relative permeability is the ratio of the magnetic
permeability of a medium to that of free space or air.

r =

Classes of Magnetism

Diamagnetism Paramagnetism Ferromagnetism

Diamagnetism - occurs when materials
structure respond to an applied magnetic field
by setting up a slight opposing field.

Paramagnetism - is a form of magnetism

whereby certain materials are weakly attracted
by an externally applied magnetic field, and
form internal, induced magnetic fields in the
direction of the applied magnetic field.

Ferromagnitism in this form of

magnetism, the induction increases
dramatically with field strength.
is the state reached when an increase in applied external magnetic field H cannot increase
the magnetization of the material further

Remanent Induction
The magnetic induction that remains in a material after removal of the magnetizing field