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Mahasiswa

Mahasiswa belajar
belajar
Apa ????
Teaching & Learning
????

Donald, 1980 ; Aneh, kita mengharap


mahasiswa belajar, tapi tidak pernah atau
jarang mengajarkan mereka tentang
mengajar.
Clement dan Lochhead, 1980, ; Kita
seharusnya mengajarkan mahasiswa
bagaimana berpikir, sebaliknya, kita
mengajarkan mereka apa yang dipikirkan .
Konsep
Konsep belajar
belajar mengajar
mengajar

Apa yang anda yakini anda


lakukan pada saat anda
belajar
Teacher-centred Student-centred
Berorintasi
Berorintasi ke
ke isi
isi Berorientasi ke siswa

Imparting Memfasilitasi
information belajar

Mempresentasikan isi Memfasilitasi pengertian


dan proses melalui pengiktan isi dan
proses
Where do we need to be?

Teacher-Centred Student-Centred
+ +
Content-Oriented Learning-Oriented
Understanding
how people learn
Implications
Implications for
for
teaching
teaching && learning
learning
Millers Triangle

Millers triangle of clinical competence (Miller GE. The assessment of clinical skills/
Competence/performance. Acad Med 1990; 65: 563-7)
Looking at Student Learning

Two
Two approaches
approaches to
to learning:
learning:
surface
surface approach
approach
-- perhatian
perhatian thp
thp mengingat
mengingat kata
kata

deep
deep approach
approach
-- perhatian
perhatian thp
thp pengertian
pengertian ide
ide dibelakan
dibelakan kata
kata
Looking at Student Learning
surface
surface approach
approach students
students rely
rely on
on the
the
teacher
teacher to
to define
define learning
learning tasks
tasks
deep
deep approach
approach students
students look
look for
for meaning
meaning
and
and react
react critically
critically with
with what
what they
they are
are
learning
learning
not
not all
all students
students develop
develop thinking
thinking skills;
skills;
rote
rote learners
learners probably
probably do
do not
not
Students
Students need
need to
to be
be able
able to
to adopt
adopt
aa deep
deep approach
approach to
to learning
learning
Students acquire
Knowledge

knowledge
knowledge is
is not
not absorbed
absorbed
knowledge
knowledge is
is not
not about
about remembering
remembering
Students acquire
Knowledge

Pengetahuan
Pengetahuan di
di bangun
bangun oleh
oleh
mahasiswa
mahasiswa dalam
dalam pengertian
pengertian yang
yang
bertumbuh
bertumbuh dan
dan berubah
berubah setiap
setiap saat
saat
the
the way
way in
in which
which knowledge
knowledge is
is stored
stored
is
is related
related to to the
the way
way it
it is
is encoded
encoded
when
when itit is
is learned
learned
Students acquire
Knowledge

new content can be meaningfully learned


only where the student can relate the
content to already-existing cognitive
structures in a meaningful way
understanding of content is an activity of

a constructivist nature which is carried


out by the student using cognitive
strategies
Konstruktif

Filosofi tentang mengetahui dan mengerti


Proses aktif untuk memahami
Aktif membangun dan mengatur pengetahuan sendiri
(Dolmanet al 2005 dan Savery dan dan Duffy, 1995)
Savery dan dan Duffy, 1995) Pembelajaran
konstruksi individu
Manusia tidak dapat berbagi pengertian tapi dapat
menguji tingkat pengertian yang dicpai individu di
lakukan pada kelompok kolaboratif

Blooms Taxonomy

Eval.

Synthesis

Analysis

Application

Comprehension

Knowledge
Pada tutorial
Menggunakan problem
Kualitas problem pentinf
Bukan kuantitas
Aktivasi prior-knowledge
prior-knowledge
pelajaran baru di konstruksi diatas prior-
knowledge melalui elaborasi
Elaborasi pengetahuan
Pada tutorial
Menggunakan problem
Kualitas problem pentinf
Bukan kuantitas
Aktivasi prior-knowledge
prior-knowledge
pelajaran baru di konstruksi diatas prior-
knowledge melalui elaborasi
Elaborasi pengetahuan
Students acquire
Knowledge

Schema Theory
Schema: the building block of cognition
new ideas are built on to the students
existing knowledge structure
relevant
relevant prior
prior knowledge
knowledge
the student constructs
Students acquire
Knowledge

Schema Theory
schema is a valid explanation for how
learners process and interpret
information
strongly situated schemata might make it
difficult for learners to develop
functional problem-solving skills that are
appropriate across knowledge domains
Students acquire
Knowledge

Thinking & Learning


thinking is essential to the acquisition of
knowledge
knowledge is essential to thinking
skillful thinking is the ability to apply
knowledge effectively
people possessing the same knowledge can
differ significantly in how skillfully they
apply what they know
Students acquire
Knowledge

Thinking & Learning


high level thinking skills can be improved
by training
teaching of thinking skills is
complementary to the teaching of
content
thinking ability and knowledge are the
warp and woof of intellectual competence
most people have the potential to develop
Looking at how
Students acquire Knowledge

experts differ from novices in that they know


more about their area of expertise
experts not only know more,
- they know they know more,
- they know better how to use what they know,
- what they know is better organised and more
readily accessible,
- and they know better how to learn still more
(Nickerson et al,
1985)
Looking at how
Students acquire Knowledge

Cognitive skills that are necessary, or


helpful, to the acquisition, use, and
control of knowledge, and other cognitive
skills, can be thought of as metacognitive
skills

(Nickerson et al, 1985)


Looking at how
Students acquire Knowledge

Metacognition
a persons knowledge concerning his/her
own mental processes and the active
monitoring and consequent regulation and
orchestration of these processes

(Flavell (1978)
Looking at how
Students acquire Knowledge

ethical
ethical and
and intellectual
intellectual development
development
progression
progression from
from simplistic
simplistic
acceptance
acceptance ofof facts
facts through
through confusion
confusion
about
about the
the nature
nature of of knowledge
knowledge toto aa
recognition
recognition of
of need
need for
for aa personal
personal
philosophy
philosophy of
of life
life

(Perry,
(Perry, 1970)
1970)