Sunteți pe pagina 1din 16

IMPORTANCE OF

EARTHING ON
ELECTERICAL
EQUIPMENTS &
WORKMEN WORKING
ON IT.
SBWM Division
ELECT
DEPTT
Contents
Discovery of Earthing
Bonding, Grounding & Earthing.
Required of Earthing, etc.
Earth Resistance.
Classification of Earthing.
Earthing Arrangement Using Letter Code.
Detail of Earthing Station.
Size of Earth Lead.
Conclusion.

2
Discovery of Earthing
In late 1990s when a retired cable TV executive named Clint Ober first introduced the idea, he was met with skepticism and
even ridicule. What does a cable guy know about health? Apparently, much more than youd think.
As the founder of the once leading cable installation company in the US, Ober knew a thing or two about cable imaging and
electrical frequencies. He knew that a well grounded TV cable installation that prevented signals from leaking out and outside
disturbances from leaking in delivered a crisp, high quality image. Those that were not well grounded did not.

After retiring, Ober started to take note of the fact that almost everyone is now sporting synthetic-soled footwear made of
non-conductive materials he knew that these shoes with rubber and plastic soles prevent us from being grounded. Ober then
began to wonder what effect, if any, this relatively recent and widespread disconnect with the earth had on the human body. If at
all like the world of cable, he thought this case of habit could very well mean were passing a large part of our lives ungrounded
and therefore disconnected from Earths stabilizing energy field. Could this disconnect have a detrimental effect on human
health? After failing to rally support from the world of science, Ober took things in his own hands and began performing his own
studies to see if his theory had any validity. In time, his work gained the attention of a few members of the medical community
including renowned cardiologist, Stephen Sinatra.
For over a decade, Ober and a handful of supporters performed various studies that examined the effect that sleeping while
grounded had on physical health. The results were consistent: participants reported sleeping better as well as a reduction in
pain. Initially Ober believed the elimination of static electricity (imagine minor blips within energy flows) to be the cause of such
positive results. Although certainly true, the lack of static electricity only accounted for part of the answer of why Earthing works.
In fact, Ober was inadvertently providing the world of science with a never before seen piece of the chronic pain puzzle.
Ober knew that Earths electrical surface is made up of negative charged electrons (also known as free electrons). These
electrons have the ability to move more freely and reduce positive charges (free radicals). Free radicals continue to ravage our
bodies healthy cells in search of the one thing they are missing, an electron. Once a free radical finds its missing electron, it is
satiated and is no longer contributing to the inflammation in the body. While many of us may grow to be electron deficient, we
now understand that the earth below our feet is the greatest source of these electrons.. if only we stay in contact with it.

3
BONDING - GROUNDING - EARTHING

Bonding
Bonding is simply the act of joining two electrical conductors together . These may be two wires, a wire and a
pipe, or these may be two Equipments. Bonding has to be done by connecting of all the metal parts that are not
supposed to be carrying current during normal operations to bringing them to the same electrical potential.

Grounding
Grounding means connecting the live part (it means the part which carries current under normal condition) to the
earth for example neutral of power transformer. For example grounding of neutral point of a star connected transformer.

Earthing
Earthing means connecting the dead part (it means the part which does not carries current under normal condition )
to the earth for example electrical equipments frames, enclosures, supports etc. Earthing is to ensure safety or
Protection of electrical equipment and Human by discharging the electrical energy to the earth. Earthing of equipment
should be electrically complete and confirmed mechanically sound and tight.
Earthing means connecting any non-current carrying conductor part of an electrical system with general mass
of earth in such a manner that there is an immediate discharge of electrical energy to the earth in the event of electrical
potential developed at that part of the system.

IMPORTANT:

Do not Ground the neutral second time when It is grounded either at Distribution Transformer
or at Main service panel of Consumer end. Grounding act as neutral. But neutral cannot act as
ground.
4
Ground is May or May not be earthed.
Why earthing is required in an electrical installation?
Properly designed, constructed and installed electrical equipments and appliances should not have
any of the non-current carrying conducting parts which is in contact with any current carrying part.
But accidentally may be due to failure of insulation between current carrying and non-current
carrying conducting parts of the equipment/appliance, if any of the non-current carrying conducting
parts comes in contact with any of the current carrying parts of the equipment/appliance, there will
be a static electrical charge developed in the non-current carrying conducting part. Now if any
human being touches that non-current carrying conducting part of the equipment or appliance, the
accumulated static charge will get a path to the earth through his body and hence it is discharged
immediately, as a result he gets an electrical shock. But if the non-current carrying conducting parts
that are metallic frameworks parts of the equipment or appliance properly earthed, then at the
occurrence of touching between any current carrying part or live part to the non-current carrying
part of the equipment/appliance, the live part of the equipment/appliance gets low impedance path
to the earth through the properly earthed metallic frameworks and hence there will be a huge
current drawn from source, passing to the earth through this path. As a result the circuit breaker or
MCB, or fuses associated with this equipment/appliance will immediately break to discontinue the
supply to the equipment/appliance. Thus proper earthing of non-current carrying metallic parts of
electrical equipments
What should andofappliances
be the distance provides safety of operation.
earth from a building?
An article electrode should not be situated within a distance of 1.5 m from the building whose installation system is being earthed.

What should be the distance between two earth pit ? 2L


E1 L E2
L

5
What should be the earth resistance of an electrical installation?
Earth resistance is defined as the resistance between actual earth and the earthed body of the installation. This is nothing but the
resistance of the path connecting the body of the installation to the actual earth. This resistance should be low enough to carry
sufficient current to the earth to ensure proper operation of protective relays or blowing of fuses associated to the installation. The
earth path consists not only the earth continuity conductor but also it includes soil in between the end of the earth continuity
conductor inside the ground and actual earth. As the resistivity of soil depends upon its moisture content, it varies time to time
throughout the year. As a result earth resistance of an installation is not constant throughout the year, it varies with weather
conditions. Earth resistance of an installation is minimum in rainy season whereas it is maximum in dry season. Although this
resistance varies time to time, but there are some standards of maximum allowable earth resistance.

1. Maximum allowable earth resistance of a large power station is 0.5 ohm


2. Maximum allowable earth resistance of major power station is 1.0 ohm
3. Maximum allowable earth resistance of small substations is 2.0 ohm
4. Maximum allowable earth resistance for all other cases is 5 ohm.

This should be noted that, the resistance between any point on the earthed body and the earth pit should be less than 1 ohm.

Standard Earthing Resistance


Electrical Earthing 3.0 ohm
Electronics Earthing 0.3 ohm

6
Classification of Earthing
The earthing is broadly divided as :-

a) System earthing
(Connection between part of plant in an operating system like LV neutral of a power
transformer winding) and earth.

b) Equipment earthing
(safety grounding) connecting bodies of equipment (like electric motor body, transformer
tank, switchgear box, operating rods of air break switches, LV breaker body, HV breaker
body, feeder breaker bodies etc) to earth.
Equipment earthing based on IS:3043-1987 Standard

Generally Equipment earthing is necessary for field.

7
International standard (IEC 60364) distinguishes families of earthing
arrangements, using the letter codes :-
The first letter indicates the type of supply earthing.

T- indicates that one or more points of the Supply are directly earthed (for example, the earthed neutral at the transformer).
I- indicates either that the supply system is not earthed at all, or that the earthing includes a deliberately-inserted impedance, the
purpose of which is to limit fault current.

The second letter indicates the earthing arrangement in the installation.

T- all exposed conductive metalwork is connected directly to earth.


N- all exposed conductive metalwork is connected directly to an earthed supply conductor provided by the Electricity Supply Company.

The third and fourth letters indicate the arrangement of the earthed supply conductor system.

S- neutral and earth conductor systems are quite separate.


C- neutral and earth are combined into a single conductor.

"T" Latin: Terra


"I Isolation
S Separate
C Combine

8
Details of Earthing Station RCC SLAB (WITH IDENTIFICATION
229 338 229 MARKING)
FUNNEL

GROUND LEVEL
4

305 BRICK IN LIME


STRIP
OR CEMENT

200
EARTH LEAD EARTH LEAD

CHARCOAL OR COKE IN
POWDER FORM MIXED
38 NB
WITH SALT & CLAY
GI PIPE
2700mm LONG

2500 (MIN.)

12 HOLE
NOTE: SUFFICIENT WATER TO BE x x
POURED INTO SUMP TO KEEP
SOIL SURROUNDING EARTH PIPE SECTION X - X
PERMANENTALY MOIST
150 150

9

Circuit
Complete
- -

Live Supply - - - -
PDB # 2
(3 Ph & N) - - - -
C B C
V A A U
S
A
B B
L
E D FAULT L
E
OFFICE U
A C WELDING M/C A
SUPPLY
L T FN 125 A L
FN 125 A

-
L L

+ +
E E
Y Y

+ + HMT LT M/C RADIAL DRILL M/C


BAND SAW M/C LIGHTNING

Body + FN 63 A FN 63 A

Resistance + C
A
B
B
U
S
C
A
B - Earth Pit
L

100000
L
CENTRAL L/T M/C E

+
E D
BENCH
+
INCOMMER A/C SUPPLY U
C GRINDER A
FN 400 A A FN 63 A
T L
L FN 63 A

-
L
L

+
E
E

-
Y
Y

+ -
+
Insulation SPARE
SHAPER M/C #
1
SHAPER M/C #
2
-
(Safety Shoe) + +
FN 63 A
FN 63 A FN 63 A
-
-
- -
- -
- -
- - -
- -
- - - - -

- -
- - - - -
Live Supply
PDB # 2
(3 Ph & N) - - - C B C
V A A U
S
A
B B
Circuit L
FAULT L

Complete
- E

A
OFFICE
D
U
C WELDING M/C
E

A
SUPPLY
L T FN 125 A L
FN 125 A
L L

+ -
E E

-
Y Y

- - - HMT LT M/C RADIAL DRILL M/C


BAND SAW M/C LIGHTNING

- FN 63 A FN 63 A

Body + C
A
B
B
U
S
C
A
B
Earth Pit
Resistance L L
CENTRAL L/T M/C E

-
E D
BENCH
+
INCOMMER A/C SUPPLY U

100
A

-
FN 400 A A C GRINDER
FN 63 A L
L T FN 63 A

-
L
L

-
E
E

-
Y
Y

- -
-
Insulation SPARE
SHAPER M/C #
1
SHAPER M/C #
2
-
(Missing) - -
FN 63 A
FN 63 A FN 63 A
- -
- -
- -
- - - - -
- -
- - -
- -
- - - - -
TRANSFORMER NEUTRAL EARTHING - SIZE OF EARTH LEAD

12
Conclusions:
Earthing resistance and earth surface potential distribution are the main parameters
characterizing electrical properties of the earthing system. Electrical parameters of the earthing
system depend on both soil properties and earth electrode geometry.
Soil properties are characterized by earth resistivity, which changes over a wide range
from a few Wm up to few thousand Wm, depending on the type of ground and its structure, as
well as its humidity. As a result, it is difficult to calculate an exact value of earthing resistance.
All relationships describing earthing resistance are derived with the assumption that the
ground has a homogenous structure and constant resistivity. Ideally, the earth surface potential
should be flat in the area around the earth electrode.
This is important for protection against electric shock, and is characterized by touch and
step voltages. Rod electrodes have a most unfavorable surface potential distribution, while
meshed electrodes have a much flatter distribution. The behavior of the earthing system for
high transient currents should be considered.
Very high current values diminish earthing resistance due to the strong electric field
between the earth electrode and the soil, while fast current changes increase earthing
impedance due to earth electrode inductance. The earthing impedance is, in this case, a
superposition of both these events.

13
Machine
Under
Maintenance
14

15
Some Questionnaire.

Q.N. (1) What should be the distance between two earth pit (If Length of Earth pit pipe = L) ?

Ans - AL B 2L C L/2 D L/4

Q.N. (2) What is maximum allowable earth resistance of a large power station ?

Ans - A 0.5 ohm B 1.5 ohm C >= 2 ohm D 3 ohm

Q.N. (3) What should be the distance of earth from a building?

Ans - A 2 Mtr B 3 Mtr C 1.5 Mtr D 1 Mtr

Q.N. (4) Grounding act as neutral. But neutral cannot act as ground statement is .

Ans - A True B False C Does not Matter D Not known.

Q.N. (5) Which earthing is connected in bodies of equipment ?

Ans - A System B Any one C Not required D Equipment

16