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Patco TCAL Training

Gavin McQuillan
Regional Sales Manager

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 1


What is temperature ?

The temperature of an object is a measure


of the energy of the molecules in that
object
Most processes require a knowledge of
temperature
We measure temperature with sensors
such as thermocouples and RTDs
sometimes incorporated into transmitters
What do we need to ensure these devices
are reading correctly ?

Why does heat move from hot to cold and not the other way round ?

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 2


Important law of thermodynamics
Zeroth law of thermodynamics
If two systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a
third system, then the first two systems are in thermal
equilibrium with each other

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 3


Temperature scales
IPTS-27
The International Practical
Temperature Scale of 1927
ITS-48
The International Temperature
Scale of 1948
IPTS-68
The International Practical
Temperature Scale of 1968
ITS-90
International Temperature
Scale of 1990
ITS-XX
International Temperature
Scale of 20XX?
Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 4
How do we measure temperature ?
Indirectly - with a thermometer
A thermometer is a device which has a measurable
property which changes with temperature
For a liquid-in-glass thermometer, the property measured is the
length of the liquid column inside a glass tube

For a RTD, the property measured is the resistance of a platinum


wire (PRT, Pt100, Pt25 etc)

For a thermocouple, the property measured is the voltage


generated along the length of two dissimilar metals or alloys

For a thermistor, the measured property is the resistance of a semi


conductor device

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 5


What is calibration

A comparison between measurements one


of known accuracy made with one device and
another measurement made in as similar a
way as possible with a second device.

The device with the known accuracy is known


as the standard or reference. The second
device is the unit under test.

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 6


Why calibrate ?

Provides confidence that the instrument has


been, and is, operating to the manufacturers
specification

Ensures compliance with quality systems


and industry regulations

Provides traceability to your measurements

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 7


Calibration chain

230V 10%

Measures 230V 1%

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 8


Calibration chain

Measures 230V 1%

Generates 230V 0.1%

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 9


Calibration chain

Generates 230V 0.1%

Reference standard measures 230V 0.01%

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 10


Calibration chain

Reference standard measures 230V


0.01%

National or international standard with


uncertainty better then 0.001%

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 11


Traceability

Traceability is the chain of calibrations from an unknown


device up to National or International Standards

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 12


Calibration methods

Absolute method SAMPLI NG CHAN 1


C1

P1

P2

C2

1575 Super-Thermometer
C2

The UUT is subjected to a physically defined standard


P2

P1

1590 PPM C1
Super-Thermometer II

Output
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
+
C+

C P

P+

such as a repeatable phenomenon of nature


P-

Guard
C-
2575
Guard
Scanner
Mighty-Mux
HART SCIENTIFIC

Reference
Probe

Probes
Under Test

Comparison Method
The UUT is compared against another measuring
device of known and superior accuracy
Comparison Calibration Fixed Point Calibration

System Calibration Sensor

The UUT is a probe and a readout joined together, the


total system is calibrated and absolute errors are
recorded Instrument

Drywell

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 13


Key measurement principles

Characterization calibration
Mathematical curve fit give best interpolation, highest accuracy
Used for higher quality sensors only
Calibration Coefficients - CVD, ITS-90, Polynomial etc.

Tolerance testing
UUT is compared to defined values in the form of a table at a range of
temperatures. No fitting is performed, only Pass or Fail
DIN EN 43760 Class A and B (RTD), DIN 43710 (TC), etc

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 14


Key measurement principles
Characterisation
UUT measured in base units
(, mV etc)

Mathematical model used to


calculate temperature

ITS-90 mathematical model is


currently the best estimation
of the Thermodynamic scale

Excerpt from ITS-90

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 15


Key measurement principles

Tolerance testing
UUT compared against a known reference and
the result compared against a standard table

IEC-751(DIN 43760) class A


= [0.15 + 0.002|t|] oC
@ 100 oC = [0.15 + 0.002|100|] = 0.35 oC
IEC-751 (DIN 43760) class B
= [0.3 + 0.005|t|] oC
@ 100 oC = [0.3 + 0.005|100|] = 0.8 oC

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 16


Key measurement principles

System calibration
UUT remains connected to a
Sensor
display, reading is compared to
the known temperature and an
error is recorded

Probe and readout cannot not be


used separately Instrument

Drywell

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 17


Temperature calibration system

Reference & UUT readout


Reference probe

Heat source

Software

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 18


Fluke product diversity

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 19


Types of TCAL product

Temperature products
Heat sources
Probes
Readouts - includes new 1586 Super DAQ
Process calibrators

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 20


Heat sources - baths & drywells

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 21


Application questions.

Standard questions to ask your customer

Type of sensor or systems being calibrated?


Dimensions of sensors being calibrated?
Temperature range for calibration?
Accuracy of sensors being calibrated?
Is automation of calibration required?
Where do you perform calibration (i.e. lab or
field environment)?

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 23


Bath product line

Standard baths Compact baths


Highest performance Good performance
(stability to 0.0007C) (stability to 0.005C)
Variety of models that Two lines: deep-well
cover 550C to 80C compacts and compact
Variety of access openings baths
and depths typically Deep well compacts have
large volume depth of 457 mm (18 in)
Most flexible in terms of Great for LIG calibration
customization Models 6330, 7320, 7340,
Models 7060, 7080, 7008, 7380, 7312, 6331, 7321,
7011, 7012, 7037, 7040, 7341, and 7381
6020, 6022, 6024, and
6050H

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 26


Bath product line

Micro baths Special application baths


Worlds smallest portable Resistor baths (models
calibration bath 7015, 7009, and 7108)
Temperature range of Concentric tube baths
30C to 200C (models 7007, 6054, and
Stability to 0.015C 6055) for cal of LIGs
Fast heating and cooling Window baths for full
times immersion LIGs or
viscosity testing (70XX-
Screw-on lid which seals CST)
inside fluid for easy
transportation 7008-IR, IR bath to fit
infrared cone
Models 6102, 7102, and
7103

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 27


Dry well product line
Metrology wells Field dry wells
Best performance in a dry-well Cover a range of 25C to
design with stability to 650C
0.005C Light weight and portable
Cover a range of 95C to Fast to reach temperature set
700C points
Built-in reference readout (917X Specified for display accuracy,
series) and process electronics radial uniformity, and stability
(914X & 9190A ) Built-in switch test
Built-in switch test functions Models 9103, 9140, and 9141
Immersion depth of 203 mm (8
in) or 150 mm (6 in) Handheld dry wells
Specified to meet all of the EA Smallest and lightest dry-wells
10/13 criteria in the world
NVLAP-accredited calibration Cover 10C to 375C
Models 9170, 9171, 9172, 9173, Fast heating and cooling
9142, 9143, 9144 & 9190 Display accuracy to 0.25C
Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 Models 9100S and 9102S 28
Dry well product line

Dual bock dry wells Other dry wells


Hot and cold block in one Thermocouple furnaces
unit
Model 9150 Portable 150C to
Model 9011 covers 1200C
30C to 670C Model 9112B horizontal 300C
Model 9009 covers to 1100C
15C to 350C
Specified for accuracy, Zero point dry-well, model
stability, and radial 9101, for ice point
uniformity reference
Time efficient calibrations Surface calibrator, model
for zero and span checks 3125, for calibration of
surface probes

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 29


Heat sources pros and cons
Dry-Wells Metrology Wells Baths

Pros Pros Pros


Fast to change temperature Best stability and uniformity Best Stability & Uniformity
Portable for a dry solution More flexible for Size & Shape
Wide temperature range Fast to change temperature of Thermometers
No fluids Portable Reduced Stem Conduction
Wide temperature range Flexible for Quantity of
No fluid Thermometers
Cons Cons Cons
Not as stable or uniform as a Fixed block Limited Temp Ranges
bath Slower to Change
More susceptible to stem Temperature
conduction Fluids can be messy
Fixed holes in block Fluid can be expensive
Not portable

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 30


Heat sources specifications

Spec Dry-Wells Metrology Wells Baths


Display Calibration of the control sensor using a Not calibrated or
Accuracy 6.35 mm (0.25 in) probe into the bottom specified
of the well
Stability Two times the standard deviation of the dry-wells temperature
over 30 min
Radial Max temperature difference between Largest two-
Uniformity two wells assuming probes of similar size minute-average
(<6.35 mm [0.25 in]) and construction difference
inserted to the full immersion depth between two
Axial Not specified Max temperature points of the
difference over a working area (25
Uniformity mm from sides and
vertical area from the
bottom of the well bottom of tank, 75
mm under surface

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 31


Bath specification - accuracy
Accuracy (how close to actual temperature?)
Baths are generally designed for stability and uniformity
instead of accuracy.
Stability and uniformity are very critical when using a
reference system

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 32


Bath stability & uniformity
Uniformity this is defined
Stability 2-sigma as difference
specification. found that
This means between two locations
two times with in
the standard
the baths working
deviation area,temperature
of the baths which is defined
(overasat1least
inch 30
from thewill
min) bottom and sides
fall within the of
the bathspecification.
stated and 3 inchesBecause
from below
baththe fluids varies
stability surface. Limiting
with work toand
temperature an even
the fluid
smaller area can further reduce the temperature
being used, these variables are also specified differences experienced during
calibration. Uniformity is heavily dependent on the fluid used

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 33


Heat sources specifications

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 34


Heat sources specifications

Spec Dry-Wells Metrology Wells Baths


Loading Not specified Change in temperature Not specified
sensed by a reference typically not a
thermometer inserted concern given the
into the bottom of the good thermal
well after other wells conductivity of
are filled fluid
Hysteresis Not specified Two external N/A
but considered measurements of the
in the display same set point when
accuracy the temperature is
approached from two
different directions
Scan Times Time in which heat source takes to heat or cool. Measured
from when the heat source begins to scan to when it reaches
set point temperature and begins to stabilize (accounts for
over shoot)
Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 35
Competitive advantages - baths

Competitors: Isotech, Julabo,


Lauda
How we win?
Best stability and uniformity on the market
Largest breadth of product (i.e. temp
range, depth, volume, etc)
Highest level of calibration expertise in the
world

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 36


Applications- baths

Comparison calibration for


characterization of PRTs and
thermistors (sometimes TCs)
LIG thermometer calibrations
Maintenance of fixed point cells
Maintenance of standard
resistors
Burn-in testing or heat treating
of electronics or other materials

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 37


Bath fluids

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 38


USPs dry wells

Hart manufactures and sells more


temperature calibration baths than any
other maker in the world
Largest product offering on the market
Proprietary control technology designed
specifically for dry-well calibrators
Dual-zone control (Metrology Wells)
Calibrated display accuracy
Built-in switch test function
Designed and tested by the leading
company in temperature calibration

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 39


Competitive advantages dry wells

Competitors: Jofra, Isotech, Techne, Giussani, many,


many more
How we win?
Best performance in 917X Metrology Wells
Most functionality in Field Metrology Wells
Speed and portability in field dry-wells, field metrology wells or handheld
dry-wells
Best accuracy for built-in electronics (Metrology Wells)
Combined hot and cold in one unit very few manufactures have dual-
well dry-well offerings

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 40


Applications dry wells

Verification or calibration of
various types of sensors
PRTs
Thermistors
TCs
Calibration to transmitters
Thermostatic switches
Bi-metallic thermometers
Annealing for PRTs
Heat treatment of materials
Field calibrations

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 41


What are Field Metrology Wells

A product category that surpasses dry-


wells in performance

Metrology Wells address cg-13 critical


specifications:

Legitimate reference thermometry

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 42


Euramet/cg-13

Conformance to Euramet/cg-13
Calibration of Temperature Block Calibrators
Gives guidance on measurement practices for
the purpose of producing calibration results
that can be recognized and accepted
throughout Europe

The approaches taken are not mandatory

A means of promoting a consistent approach to


good measurement practice

Key terminology:
http://www.euramet.org o Axial homogeneity
o Radial homogeneity
o Loading
o Stability over time
o Hysteresis
Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 43
Euramet/cg-13 axial uniformity

Axial Uniformity variation in the temperature along the axial


length of the insert (block) within the measurement zone.

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 44


Euramet/cg-13 radial uniformity

Radial Uniformity variation in the temperature between


different wells of the insert (block) within the measurement
zone.
Reference Gradient
probe probe

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 45


Euramet/cg-13 thermal loading

Thermal Loading

Additional heat loss due to increased numbers or size


of thermometers
Creates a shift in the temperature gradient in the
sleeve (block) of the drywell
The Temperature Controller cannot completely
compensate for this shift
The result can be a temperature error that is
particularly apparent in the Direct Mode (i.e. no
reference thermometer)

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 46


Euramet/cg-13 thermal loading

Dry-Well Block Loading Effect


421.23
1 Probe 2 Probes 3 Probes 4 Probes 3 Probes 2 Probes 1 Probe
421.21
Constant
421.19 0.026C error Display
421.17 Temperature
Temp, C

421.15 Ref 1
421.13 Ref 2

421.11

421.09

421.07

421.05
10:15
10:23
10:31
10:40
10:48
10:56
11:04
11:12
11:20
11:28
11:36
11:44
11:52
12:00
12:08
12:17
12:25
12:33
12:41
12:49
12:57
13:05
13:13
13:21
13:29
13:37
13:45
13:53
Time/event

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 47


Temperature stability

Temperature Stability Measurement


100.145
Temperature Deviation, C

100.140
2 Sigma = 0.009C
100.135

100.130

100.125

100.120

100.115

100.110
Peak to Peak = 0.026C
100.105 Peak = 0.026C / 2 = 0.013C
100.100
0:00
0:01
0:02
0:03
0:04
0:06
0:07
0:08
0:09
0:11
0:12
0:13
0:14
0:15
0:17
0:18
0:19
0:20
0:22
0:23
0:24
0:25
0:26
0:28
0:29
0:30
0:31
0:33
0:34
0:35
Time

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 48


Control hysteresis

Control Sensor Hysteresis

700

600
Actual Temperature, C

500

400 Heating
Error
Error Cooling
300 Average Value

200
Temperature Range
Midpoint
100

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Set Point Temperature, C

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 49


Readouts
Equipment Advantages
Readouts
(Thermometers)
Rugged Handheld with
Metrology class
1523 / 1524
performance. Data logging
and trending built in
Single channel, ideal for
1502A monitoring a single
Reference probe
Four Channel, ideal
calibration readout.
1529
Logging and high speed
modes
High performance
1560 configurable readout that
grows as needs change
High end Readout, perfect
1595 alternative to expensive AC
and DC bridges

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 50


Readouts
Equipment Advantages
Readouts
(Thermometers)

Rugged Handheld with


1523 / 1524 Metrology class
performance. Data logging
and trending built in
Single channel, ideal for
1502A monitoring a single
Reference probe
Four Channel, ideal
1529 calibration readout. Logging
and high speed modes
High performance
1560 configurable readout that
grows as needs change
High end Readout, perfect
1595 alternative to expensive AC
and DC bridges

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 51


Readouts
Equipment Advantages
Readouts
(Thermometers)
Rugged Handheld with
Metrology class
1523 / 1524 performance. Data
logging and trending built
in
Single channel, ideal for
1502A monitoring a single
Reference probe
Four Channel, ideal
calibration readout.
1529
Logging and high speed
modes
High performance
1560 configurable readout that
grows as needs change
High end Readout, perfect
1595 alternative to expensive
AC and DC bridges
Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 52
Readouts
Equipment Advantages
Readouts
(Thermometers)
Rugged Handheld with
Metrology class
1523 / 1524
performance. Data logging
and trending built in
Single channel, ideal for
1502A monitoring a single
Reference probe
Four Channel, ideal
calibration readout.
1529
Logging and high speed
modes
High performance
1560 configurable readout that
grows as needs change
High end Readout, perfect
1595 alternative to expensive AC
and DC bridges
Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 53
Readouts
Equipment Advantages
Readouts
(Thermometers)
Rugged Handheld with
Metrology class
1523 / 1524 performance. Data
logging and trending built
in
Single channel, ideal for
1502A monitoring a single
Reference probe
Four Channel, ideal
calibration readout.
1529
Logging and high speed
modes
High performance
1560 configurable readout that
grows as needs change
High end Readout, perfect
1595 alternative to expensive
AC and DC bridges
Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 54
Readouts

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 55


Thermometer readouts

Handhelds
1523 & 1524

Benchtop
1502A
1529A

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 56


1523 & 1524
PRT
1523 Thermistor
1524
Thermocouple

Save and Recall


25 statistics and readings

Real TimeTrending

2nd Channel
(PRT or Thermistor)

Logging
15K points

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 57


1523 & 1524 ready for anything

3 AA Batteries
~ 20 hours
RS-232 PC Interface 12 V DC Power

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 58


1523 & 1524 ready for anything

PRTs & RTDs


200 oC to 1000oC 10, 25 ,100
As good as 0.011 C
Thermocouples
200 oC to 2315 oC Types: C,E,J,K,L,M,N,T,U,B,R,S
0.23 C (J,K,L,M)
Precision thermistors
50 oC to 150 oC
0.002 oC !!

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 59


INFO-CON connectors and accuracy
NIST Traceable
Calibration information is
plug-and-play
Universal thermocouple
Probes can be
locked to
Adapter
work with RTD adapter
specific
readouts Spare connectors

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 60


Applications

Oven and freezer temperature validation


Engine and turbine efficiency
Use 1524 for two channels [e.g. Tin & Tout]

Process temperature logging


Food
Custody transfer
Metallurgy

Heat meter testing


Use 1524 for two channels [e.g. Tin & Tout]

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 61


Bench top readouts
1502A and 1529

Models with 1 or 4 input


channels
RTDs, Thermistors and T/Cs
Accuracy to 0.004C using
probe calibration coefficients
Data acquisition software for
logging and calibration available

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 62


1502A single channel readout

Probes - nominal RTPW 25 to 100 (RTD, PRT or SPRT)

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 63


1502A features

Resistance range: 0 to 400


Temperature Accuracy: 0.006oC @ 0oC
for Pt25 or Pt100
Temperature Resolution: 0.001
Direct temperature display: ITS-90, IPTS-
68 and Callendar van Dusen
Digital Filter: 0 to 60 seconds,
(exponential)
RS232 standard, IEEE-488 optional
DC battery power option
In-house re-calibration DC cal

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 64


1529 multi channel readout

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 65


1529 features
Measures PRTs, thermistors & Simultaneous display of all 4 inputs
thermocouples
Memory: auto-log of 8,000 data
4 input channels: 4 x PRT, 4 x T/C points and demand-log of 100 data
or 2 PRT - 2 T/C points
Resistance range: 0 to 500K Data labels: 25 user definable labels
(7-characters)
Voltage range: -10 to 100mV
IR interface for download of stored
Temperature Accuracy: data
0.006C @ 0C for Pt25 or
Pt100 Programmable display with real time
statistics, (Max, Min, SD, etc.)
Battery powered: more than 8-
hours of use on a single charge Fast measure mode: Up to 0.1s on a
single channel
RS232 standard, IEEE-488 optional
In-house re-calibration DC cal

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 66


1529 input options

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 67


Introduction

The new gold standard of industrial temperature calibration

Portable electronic thermometer


Digital readout combined with a robust
reference probe
Readout rotates 90
Replaces precision liquid-in-glass (LIG)
thermometers
Intrinsically safe (ATEX compliant)

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 68


Key features

Accuracy: 0.05oC (0.09 F) over full range


Intrinsically safe (ATEX and IECEx compliant)
Two models to choose from:
1551A (50 to 160 oC)
1552A (80 to 300 oC)
Display temperature in oC or F
Electronic functions simplify measurements
300-hour battery life
NVLAP-accredited, NIST-traceable calibration
included

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 69


Thermometer requirements

Low measurement uncertainty


Efficient operations
Reliable results

The thermometer readout is a key component of a


temperature calibration system it can limit or enhance
laboratory capability

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 70


Overview

Two dedicated external reference input channels


on the rear panel
Standby current reduces transient effects when scanning
between channels
Channel Select keys turn measurement mode on or off at the
touch of a button
Sample rates as fast as one second
USB data transfer and computer control
Remote view and device control via Ethernet

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 71


Probes

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 94


RTD & thermistor probes

Reference PRTs
Reference Thermistors
Precision Industrial RTDs
Variety of models to suit all your
customers reference temperature
measurement applications

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 95


5626 Secondary Standard PRT

Range: -200C to 661C


100 and 25 nominal triple
point resistance
Drift rate: < 0.02C / 500-
hours @ 660C
Full compliance with ITS-90
300mm and 381mm length
options
Supplied as standard with
accredited fixed-point
calibration
Calibration Uncertainty:
0.015C (k=2)

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 96


5614 Secondary Reference PRT

Range: -200oC to 420oC


100 Rtpw
300mm length options
Supplied as standard with
traceable calibration
Calibration Uncertainty:
0.025oC (k=2)

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 97


4180 & 4181 IR calibrators
Ideal sources for IR thermometer calibration
Two products
4180: -15oC to 120oC
4181: 35oC to 500oC
High accuracy based on apparent
temperature:
4180: 0.25oC to 0.55oC at 120oC
4181: 0.30oC to 1.5oC at 500oC
Target size: 15 cm (6 in.)
Emissivity of 0.95 0.02
Apparent emissivity of 0.95 0.005 (due to
calibration using reference at 0.95)
Emissivity Adjustment: 0.05
Speed: 20 min. to 5000C, 35 min. to
150C

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 98


Ease of use

LCD display with menu buttons


Primary display shows temperature, set point, & emissivity
Temperature setup menu
Program menu
System/setup menu
Languages include Eng, Jap, Chi, Deu, Esp, Fre, Rus, Ita
View temperatures menu
Dedicated set temperature button
Dedicated oC/oF (for the metrically challenged)
Visual and audio stability indicators
Stability is user-definable
Easy-to-store and downloadable cal information

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 99


Screen shots

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 100


High performance

Accuracy to 0.25oC
with accredited calibration and a very robust uncertainty analysis behind it
sell confidence with confidence

Stability to 0.05oC
Uniformity of 150 mm (6-in.) diameter to 0.1oC
Zone-controlled heaters
Helpful for checking imagers

Heating time of 20 min to 500oC


Cooling time of 35 min to -15oC
Dry-air purge cover included with 4180

Gavin McQuillan Patco TCAL Training, March 2015 101


Workload - Fluke
Spot size of 50 mm (2 in) or
140 mm (5.5 in)
Calibration points: -15oC to
500oC
Spectral band typically 8-14
m
Emissivity setting fixed at
0.95, 0.97, or adjustable
4180 and 4181 will cover all
models
Popular models include
MiniTemps, FoodPros, ST
Series, MX Series, Fluke 60
Series, Fluke 570 Series

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Application questions.

Standard questions to ask your customer

Type of sensor or systems being calibrated?


Dimensions of sensors being calibrated?
Temperature range for calibration?
Accuracy of sensors being calibrated?
Is automation of calibration required?
Where do you perform calibration (i.e. lab or
field environment)?

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ITS-90

International temperature scale - 1990

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Temperature scales

William Thomson introduced


absolute temperature scale in 1848

derived from Carnot ideal heat engine


defines absolute zero
standard unit is the Kelvin (K)
defines 1K as 1/273.16 of TPW
triple point of water is 273.16K (0.01oC)
standard symbol is T
ice point is 273.15K
steam point is 373.15K

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Why we need the ITS

Temperature can not be measured directly

Only be measured in terms of extensive quantities: length,


volume, resistance etc

Functional relationships between these parameters and


temperature are not sufficiently well known to permit them to be
used over a wide temperature range.

These difficulties have been so great that it has proved necessary


to introduce a Practical Temperature Scale the International
Temperature Scale

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ITS-90 components

Specifies certain fixed points (the freezing points of seven metals, the
melting point of gallium, the triple points of water, mercury and four
cryogenic gases, and the boiling points of hydrogen at two pressures)
as references for the calibration of thermometers. The temperature
of these fixed points is precisely defined and internationally agreed

Defines procedures by which certain practical thermometers of the


required quality and precision can be calibrated in such a way that
the values obtained from them can be precise and reproducible,
while at the same time representing the corresponding
thermodynamic temperatures as closely as possible

Defines interpolating equations that relate the measured property of


the instruments to the temperatures

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Fixed points

Fixed points are phase change devices

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Fixed points

-189.3442C TP of Argon 83.8058 K


-38.8344C TP of Mercury 234.3156 K
0.01C TP of Water 273.16 K
29.7646C MP of Gallium 302.9146 K
156.5985C FP of Indium 429.7485 K
231.928C FP of Tin 505.078 K
419.527C FP of Zinc 692.677 K
660.323C FP of Aluminum 933.473 K
961.78C FP of Silver 1234.93 K

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ITS-90 ranges

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Fixed point cell construction

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Melting curve - Ga

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SPRT a practical thermometer
Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometer
Strain-free, well-annealed wire

Removes shock induced step function


Pure platinum
Resistance ratios
Removes oxidation
Protection from contamination
W(302.9146K) 1.11807 (Ga)
Alignment
Four-lead of crystal structure
construction
W(234.3156) 0.844235 (HgTP)
Standard dimensions

Good electrical insulation

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Triple point of water [TPW]

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TPW cell

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Automated TPW

Fully automated operation

< 0.0005C uncertainty

> 12-hour plateaus

Self-calibration via water triple


point cell

Intrinsic standard

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Practical aspects of TPW

Does not need recalibration

Check reference probes for drift

Valuable history record all TPW


measurements

Most accurate temperature standard

Easy to realise

Check on return from calibration

Every lab should have one !

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Realising the ITS-90

Obtaining the equilibrium states as defined by the scale

Having thermometers in thermal equilibrium with those


equilibrium states

Making accurate measurements and interpretation of


the properties of those thermometers in terms of the
ITS-90

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Realising the ITS-90
-196C 0.01C 156.5985C 419.527C 961.78C
LN2 TPW In FP Zn FP Ag FP
Comparator
-38.8344C 29.7646C 231.928C 660.323C
Hg TP Ga MP Sn FP Al FP

-200C 0C 200C 400C 600C 800C 1000C

SPRT Interpolation and Equations

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