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BUILDING DESIGN 1

Technical Drawings for Architecture;


Drawing symbols used in Architectural
Drawings and Material Specification;
Guidelines and Sample of Architecture
Presented By;
QUIJADA, Arean John Gabriel
HONRADO, Clark John
REYES, Dwight
CALUMA, Ivan
PARAISO, Joyce
TECHNICAL DRAWING
Technical drawing - drafting or drawing, is the act
and discipline of composing drawings that
visually communicate how something functions or is
constructed.
An architectural drawing or architect's drawing is a
technical drawing of a building
Technical drawing is essential for communicating
ideas in industry and engineering.
ISO 128
ISO 128 - is an international standard (ISO), about the
general principles of presentation in technical drawings,
specifically the graphical representation of objects on
technical drawings.
Composition of ISO 128
The 14 parts of the ISO 128 standard are:
ISO 128-1:2003. Technical drawingsGeneral principles of
presentationPart 1: Introduction and index
ISO 128-15:2013 Technical product documentation (TPD)
General principles of presentationPart 15: Presentation of
shipbuilding drawings
ISO 128-20:1996 Technical drawingsGeneral principles of
presentationPart 20: Basic conventions for lines
ISO 128-21:1997 Technical drawingsGeneral principles of
presentationPart 21: Preparation of lines by CAD systems
ISO 128-22:1999 Technical drawingsGeneral principles of presentation
Part 22: Basic conventions and applications for leader lines and
reference lines
ISO 128-23:1999 Technical drawingsGeneral principles of presentation
Part 23: Lines on construction drawings
ISO 128-24:2014 Technical drawingsGeneral principles of presentation
Part 24: Lines on mechanical engineering drawings
ISO 128-25:1999 Technical drawingsGeneral principles of presentation
Part 25: Lines on shipbuilding drawings
ISO 128-30:2001 Technical drawingsGeneral principles of presentation
Part 30: Basic conventions for views
ISO 128-34:2001 Technical drawingsGeneral principles of presentation
Part 34: Views on mechanical engineering drawings
ISO 128-40:2001 Technical drawingsGeneral principles of presentation
Part 40: Basic conventions for cuts and sections
ISO 128-44:2001 Technical drawingsGeneral principles of presentation
Part 44: Sections on mechanical engineering drawings
ISO 128-50:2001 Technical drawingsGeneral principles of presentation
Part 50: Basic conventions for representing areas on cuts and sections
ISO/TS 128-71:2010 Technical product documentationGeneral principles of
presentationPart 71: Simplified representation for mechanical engineering
drawings
Location Drawings
The need for precise communication in the
preparation of a functional document
distinguishes technical drawing from the
expressive drawing of the visual arts. Artistic
drawings are subjectively interpreted; their
meanings are multiply determined. Technical
drawings are understood to have one
intended meaning.
Location drawings and general arrangement drawings

The information shown on a locating drawing will be overall


sizes, levels and references to assembly drawings.

Typically, location drawings will include:

Block plans.
Site plans.
Floor plans.
Foundations plans.
Roof plans.
Section through the entire building.
Elevations.
Block plans

an outline sketch : a plan in which only broad general features


are indicated
FOUNDATION PLAN
A foundation plan is a sketch of the baseline of the entire structure
FLOOR PLANS

In architecture and building engineering, a floor


plan is a drawing to scale, showing a view from
above, of the relationships between rooms, spaces
and other physical features at one level of a
structure.
ROOF PLANS
In architecture and building engineering, a floor plan
is a drawing to scale, showing a view from above, of
the relationships between rooms, spaces and other
physical features at one level of a structure.
ELEVATION
an elevation is a
horizontal
orthographic
projection of a
building on to a
vertical plane, the
vertical plane normally
being parallel to one
side of the building.
SITE PLANS
Site plans usually show the extent of the site but no surrounding detail.
Recommended scales are:
1 : 500
1 : 200
The function of the site plan is to show:
The location of the building or buildings in relation to their surroundings.
The topography of the site, with both existing and finished levels.
Buildings to be demolished or removed.
The extent of earthworks, included, cutting and filling, and the provision of bank
and retaining walls.
Roads, footpaths, hardstandings and paved areas.
Planting.
The layout of external service runs, including drainage, water, gas, electricity, telephone,
etc.
The layout of external lighting.
Fencing, walls and gates.
The location of miscellaneous external components bollards, litter bins, etc.
ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING SYMBOLS
Single switched wall socket

Double switched wall socket

This are some of the more commonly used symbols on


Double switched wall socket above worktop level

architectural drawings
Single switchedfused spur

TV aerial

1 gang light switch

2 gang light switch

2 gang 2 way light switch

Dimmer switch

Pendant light

Recessed downlight

Wall light

Telephone point
Consumer unit
Shaver socket
Ethernetsocket
Thermostat
Lamp
Brick
Concrete
Insulation
Window(plan)
Window(elevation) showing direction
of opening - point of triangle
indicates hinged side

Door (plan)

North point
Incline (steps,stairsorramp) with
arrow head at the higher side
MATERIAL SPECIFICATION

Choosing the right architectural materials requires a


designer to draw on a vast repository of knowledge
relating to the technical aspects of various materials and
how they will perform within a functional space. A
designer must then compose and harmonize these
materials in a way that suits the architecture in order to
deliver an inspiring, well-thought-out design.
Christophers ability to select an elegant mix of materials
comes from his sound product knowledge and design
sensibility, catering to the requirements of any given
project.
Guidelines of Architectural Drawings
Types of drawings
Freehand drawings, paintings or sketches
These are good for recording the general visual effect of a building or for making
personal statements about how you feel about a place.
Scale drawings on graph paper
These are useful for preliminary drawings, for recording measurements as you
carry out a survey, or for planning furniture layouts in rooms or buildings
which have straight lines.
Scale drawings on plain paper
If you want to make an accurate drawing, show interesting details or the colours
or textures of materials on a scale drawing, use plain paper.
Computer drawings
If your school has a CAD package, use a computer to make scale drawings
based on your survey measurements.
Drawing equipment
Drawing board It must be smooth and have straight edges which
are exactly parallel.
T-square This is used for drawing horizontal lines which are
absolutely level.
15 cm size 45" and 30-60" set-triangles -Adjustable set-squares
let you choose any angle you want, but they are expensive.
Scale This looks like a ruler, but the divisions marked on it are in
various standard proportions to actual distances - 1 :lo, 1 :20. 1 :
50, 1: 100 etc.
Well-sharpened pencils 2H lead pencils are good for scale
drawings. They make a clean, sharp line and don't smear easily.
Compass- sometimes useful, but most drawings can be made
without one.
Drawing pins or masking tape Use these to hold your drawing in
place while you work.
Types of paper

Cartridge paper is a high quality type of


heavy paper used for illustration and drawing.
Tracing paper is paper made to have low
opacity, allowing light to pass through. It was
originally developed for architects and design
engineers to create drawings which could be
copied precisely.
Detail paper same as Tracing paper but
cheaper.
Drawing to scale

Using a scale rule


Suppose you want to draw a 1:50 plan of a room that is 5 metres
long by 3.5 metres wide. Take your scale rule and select the side
marked 1:50. Then, use the numbers on the scale to measure out
a rectangle 5 by 3.5
Using graphing paper
With graph paper, you make your own scale. Choose the scale you
think is suitable for your drawing. Then mark out the "metres" on your
paper. If the scale is 1 :50, then 20 mm on the graph paper will
represent 1 metre (or 1000 mm) on the building.
Plans, Sections, and Elevations

A Plan drawing shows what you would see if you sliced through the
building horizontally, lifted off the top part and looked down. The "cut"
is usually made just above the level of the window sills. A separate plan
is usually made for each storey of the building. Any solid part of the
building which is cut through can be coloured in with shading or
hatching. This is shown on the walls in the drawing.
A Section drawing shows what you would see if you made a vertical cut
through the building, took one half away, and looked into the other half. You can
make as many section drawings as you need to explain the building, but one or
two should be enough for most ordinary houses. To show where you have made
your cuts, draw "section lines" on your plans with arrows on the ends to show
which way the section is looking. Any solid parts which are cut (such as walls,
floors or roofs) can be shaded or hatched.
An Elevation shows what you would see if you looked straight at the
building from the outside. A detached house needs 4 elevations. A semi-
detached house has 3 elevations. A terraced house has 2 elevations. Most
elevations show the outside of buildings, but you can draw elevations of the
walls in individual rooms.
Colour and texture on scale drawings

When you do a scale drawing, it is as though you were looking at the


building from a distance. This makes the building look smaller than it really
is. This imaginary distance also affects colours and textures. If you look at a
building from a distance, you may not be able to make out the joints
between the brickwork, or where one roof tile ends and the next begins.
The door handle and the letter box may just be dark shapes on the front
door. Something similar happens to colours. The farther away you move,
the more misty or greyish they become, like mountains viewed from a
distance, or houses and fields seen from a plane.
The amount and sharpness of detail you show, and the brightness of
colours on the drawings, depend on the scale of the drawing. You cannot
show a lot of detail on small-scale drawings. Bright colours which might
look fine on a 1:50 elevation of a house may look garish if they are used
for the same house shown at a scale of 1 :200