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MAINI HIDRAULICE, CURSUL NR.

14

COMPRESOARE (GAS COMPRESSORS)


DEFINIII
Din punct de vedere energetic, compresorul este o main de lucru
care ridic energia specific a gazului care l parcurge.
Diferena esenial ntre pomp i compresor const n faptul c, n timp
ce pompa ridic energia lichidelor incompresibile, compresorul, lucrnd
cu gaze, modific presiunea i deci volumul lor (procesul modificrii
presiunii este legat de modificarea volumului precum i a energiei
interne, fiind astfel un proces termic).
Compresorul este deci o main hidraulic n care se produce
modificarea nu numai a energiei specifice, ci i a energiei
termice a gazelor, n timp ce n pomp are loc numai modificarea
energiei specifice a lichidelor.
Energia cedat gazului n timpul procesului de comprimare, respectiv
diferena ntre energia coninut nainte i dup comprimare, const
ntr-o anumit cretere a energiei calorice, a energiei cinetice i a
energiei poteniale a gazului. Din punct de vedere practic, prezint
interes numai creterea energiei poteniale (creterea presiunii
gazului), deoarece energia caloric se disipeaz n timpul micrii prin
conducte, iar creterea energiei cinetice, nainte i dup compresor este
nensemnat.
DEFINIII
Unitatea de msur a creterii presiunii gazului care a trecut prin
compresor este raportul presiunii finale p2 fa de cea iniial p1,
numit grad sau raport de comprimare.

Dup gradul de comprimare b = p2/p1 se clasific astfel:


ventilatoare cu b < 1,1
suflante 1,1 < b < 2,5
compresoare b > 2,5

Observaie:
Instalaiile destinate s produc depresiune sunt numite pompe
de vid.
Ventilatoarele i suflantele utilizate la evacuarea gazelor de ardere
prin depresiune la ieirea din cazan se numesc exhaustoare.
CLASIFICARE DUP PRINCIPIUL DE
FUNCIONARE
Dup principiul de funcionare compresoarele se mpart n dou categorii:
1) compresoare volumice, care pot fi cu piston sau rotative;
2) turbocompresoare, care pot fi compresoare centrifuge,
compresoare axiale (i mai rar compresoare diagonale).
Compresoarele volumice cu piston se caracterizeaz prin periodicitatea
procesului de comprimare, motiv pentru care necesit supape; sunt
indicate pentru debite mici i presiuni orict de mari. Gradul de
comprimare pentru un cilindru variaz ntre 3,5 i 6. Se poate ajunge la
un grad de comprimare de 1000, aceasta realizndu-se prin
comprimarea succesiv n mai multe trepte.
Compresoarele volumice rotative realizeaz comprimarea prin variaia
continu a spaiului ocupat de gaz n timpul trecerii prin rotor.
Compresoarele centrifuge realizeaz comprimarea gazelor prin aciunea
forei centrifuge asupra masei de gaz la trecerea prin rotor; sunt
indicate pentru debite medii i presiuni medii
Compresoarele axiale imprim energie gazului prin intermediul unor pale
profilate; sunt indicate pentru debite foarte mari i presiuni foarte
sczute.
COMPRESOARE CENTRIFUGE
Centrifugal compressors use a rotating disk or impeller in a
shaped housing to force the gas to the rim of the impeller,
increasing the velocity of the gas. A diffuser (divergent duct)
section converts the velocity energy to pressure energy.
Centrifugal compressor, (sometimes referred to as radial
compressors) are a special class of radial-flow work-
absorbing turbomachinery that includes pumps, fans,
blowers and compressors.
For purposes of definition, centrifugal compressors often
have density increases greater than 5 percent. Also, they
often experience relative fluid velocities above Mach 0.3
when the working fluid is air or nitrogen. In contrast, fans or
blowers are often considered to have density increases of
less than 5 percent and peak relative fluid velocities below
Mach 0.3-0.5
Most modern passenger and military aircraft are
powered by gas turbine engines, which are also
called jet engines. There are several different types
of jet engines, but all jet engines have some parts
in common. All jet engines have a compressor to
increase the pressure of the incoming air before it
enters the burner. Compressor performance has a
large influence on total engine performance.
There are two main types of compressors used in
jet engines. The compressor shown here is called a
centrifugal compressor because the flow through
the compressor is turned perpendicular to the axis
of rotation. The other type of compressor is an axial
compressor and is discussed on a separate slide.
The very first jet engines used centrifugal
compressors, and they are still used on small
turbojets and turbo shaft engines.
How does a centrifugal compressor work? The
details are quite complex because the blade
geometries and the resulting flows are three
dimensional, unsteady, and can have important
viscous and compressibility effects. Each blade on
the compressor produces a pressure variation
much like the airfoil of a spinning propeller. But
unlike a propeller blade, the blades of a centrifugal
compressor are close to one another, which
seriously alters the flow between the blades.
Centrifugal compressors also do work on the flow by
turning, and therefore accelerating, the flow radially.
Compressor designers must rely on wind tunnel
testing and sophisticated computational models to
determine the performance of a centrifugal
compressor. The performance is characterized by
the pressure ratio across the compressor CPR, the
rotational speed of the shaft necessary to produce
the pressure increase, and an efficiency factor that
indicates how much additional work is required
relative to an ideal compressor.
SECIUNE PRIN COMPRESORUL CENTRIFUGAL
APLICAII ALE COMPRESORULUI CENTRIFUGAL
They are primarily used for continuous, stationary service in industries such as oil refineries,
chemical and petrochemical plants and natural gas processing plants.[1][2][3] Their application
can be from 100 hp (75 kW) to thousands of horsepower. With multiple staging, they can
achieve extremely high output pressures greater than 10,000 psi (69 MPa).
in pipeline transport of natural gas to move the gas from the production site to the consumer.
in oil refineries, natural gas processing plants, petrochemical and chemical plants

in air separation plants to manufacture purified end product gases.


in refrigeration and air conditioner equipment refrigerant cycles: see Vapor-compression
refrigeration.
in industry and manufacturing to supply compressed air for all types of pneumatic tools.
in gas turbines and auxiliary power units (Centrifugal compressors are used in small gas
turbine engines or as the final compression stage of medium sized gas turbines.)
in pressurized aircraft to provide atmospheric pressure at high altitudes.
in automotive engine and diesel engine turbochargers (They are also used in internal
combustion engines as superchargers and turbochargers. )
in oil field re-injection of high pressure natural gas to improve oil recovery
many large snow-making operations (like ski resorts) use this type of compressor.
CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR (HITACHI PLANT
TECHNOLOGIES)
Hitachi has manufactured more than 3,000 compressor sets of various types
including 700 sets of centrifugal type over the past 85 years for complete
range of industrial facilities, including refineries, chemical and petrochemical
plants, natural gas processing and transmission plants, and iron and steel
mills.
Compressors as the heart of the plant have been required to be more high
reliable and also to be more high efficiency in order to save energy in the plant,
because the rising cost of energy has been serious problem in the world in
recent decade.
To satisfy above requirement, Hitachi has been researched and developed of
the compressor with high efficiency, and up to now, many compressors have
been supplied and are operating successfully in the world.
PIPELINE CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR
> 130 bar & 2 000 - 85 000 m/ h
To compensate for the pressure loss that
occurs when natural gas is transported
long distances in pipelines, pipeline
compressors are used to recompress the
gas to its original line pressure. In
extensively branched pipeline networks in
particular, there is a need to vary the
amounts of gas transported and the
pressure conditions considerably at the
compressor stations. This in turn makes
high demands on the flexibility of the
compressors, which should exhibit a high
level of efficiency over a wide range of
performance characteristics.
Pipeline compressors are also used in gas
collection and gas processing plants as
export compressors. The majority of
compressors at the stations are driven by
gas turbines. However, electric drive motors
are being used increasingly as an
alternative to turbines.
COMPRESOARE DIAGONALE
Diagonal or mixed-flow compressors are similar to
centrifugal compressors, but have a radial and axial
velocity component at the exit from the rotor. The
diffuser is often used to turn diagonal flow to the axial
direction. The diagonal compressor has a lower
diameter diffuser than the equivalent centrifugal
compressor.
A diagonal or mixed-flow compressor is effectively a
cross between a centrifugal and axial-flow
compressor. The American term diagonal-flow is very
apt, because these compressors combine both axial
and radial velocity components. The prime advantage
is the relatively small diameter across the exit diffuser,
compared with that of the equivalent centrifugal
compressor.
A diagonal-flow compressor is featured in the Pratt &
Whitney Canada PW610F turbofan, recently certified
for the Eclipse 500 Very Light Jet aircraft.
COMPRESOARE AXIALE
Axial-flow compressors are dynamic rotating compressors that use arrays of
fan-like aerofoils to progressively compress the working fluid. They are used
where there is a requirement for a high flow rate or a compact design.
50 000 - 1 400 000 m/h and < 20 bar

The arrays of aerofoils are set in rows, usually as pairs: one rotating and one
stationary. The rotating aerofoils, also known as blades or rotors, accelerate
the fluid. The stationary aerofoils, also known as a stators or vanes, turn
and decelerate the fluid; preparing and redirecting the flow for the rotor
blades of the next stage. Axial compressors are almost always multi-staged,
with the cross-sectional area of the gas passage diminishing along the
compressor to maintain an optimum axial Mach number. Beyond about 5
stages or a 4:1 design pressure ratio, variable geometry is normally used to
improve operation.
Axial compressors can have high efficiencies; around 90% polytropic at their
design conditions. However, they are relatively expensive, requiring a large
number of components, tight tolerances and high quality materials. Axial-
flow compressors can be found in medium to large gas turbine engines, in
natural gas pumping stations, and within certain chemical plants.
AXIAL COMPRESSOR
High Efficiency, High Volume Applications
Axial flow compressors are designed for high
volume, high efficiency, and high reliability
applications. These applications include air
separation, sewage treatment, wind tunnels,
and CAES. Two of our primary applications
are FCC air blowers and blast furnaces.
The Dresser-Rand axial-flow compressor line
includes six standard frame sizes that are
each available with 3 to 15 stages. Pressure
ratio is determined by the number of stages
and flow is varied by ch
The Dresser-Rand axial compressors are
designed to provide excellent accessibility by
being horizontally split and providing the
variable stator adjusting mechanism outside
the casing. Rotor blade replacement can be
done individually without removing the rotor
from its casing.
SECIUNE PRIN COMPRESORUL AXIAL
HTTP://WWW.GRC.NASA.GOV/WWW/K-12/AIRPLANE/CAXIAL.HTML
MODERN JET ENGINES

FA-18 Hornet breaking sound


barrier (7 July 1999)

The increase in pressure produced by a single stage is limited by the relative velocity between the rotor and
the fluid, and the turning and diffusion capabilities of the aerofoils. A typical stage in a commercial
compressor will produce a pressure increase of between 15% and 60% (pressure ratios of 1.15-1.6) at design
conditions with a polytropic efficiency in the region of 90-95%. To achieve different pressure ratios, axial
compressors are designed with different numbers of stages and rotational speeds.
Higher stage pressure ratios are also possible if the relative velocity between fluid and rotors is supersonic,
however this is achieved at the expense of efficiency and operability. Such compressors, with stage pressure
ratios of over 2, are only used where minimising the compressor size, weight or complexity is critical, such as
in military jets.
Modern jet engines use a series of compressors, running at different speeds; to supply air at around 40:1
pressure ratio for combustion with sufficient flexibility for all flight conditions.
The relative motion of the blades relative to the fluid adds velocity or pressure or both to the fluid as it passes
through the rotor. The fluid velocity is increased through the rotor, and the stator converts kinetic energy to
pressure energy. Some diffusion also occurs in the rotor in most practical designs.
The increase in velocity of the fluid is primarily in the tangential direction (swirl) and the stator removes this
angular momentum.
The pressure rise results in a stagnation temperature rise. For a given geometry the temperature rise depends
on the square of the tangential Mach number (the speed of an object moving through air, or any fluid
substance, divided by the speed of sound as it is in that substance) of the rotor row. Current turbofan engines
have fans that operate at Mach 1.7 or more, and require significant containment and noise suppression
structures to reduce blade loss damage and noise.
MULTISTAGE AXIAL COMPRESSORS
An axial compressor is
typically made up of many
alternating rows of rotating
and stationary blades called
rotors and stators,
respectively, as shown in
Figures. The first stationary
row (which comes in front of
the rotor) is typically called
the inlet guide vanes or IGV.
Each successive rotor-stator
pair is called a compressor
stage. Hence compressors
with many blade rows are
termed multistage
compressors
A typical multistage axial
flow compressor (Rolls-
Royce, 1992).
Schematic representation of
an axial flow compressor.
COMPRESSOR MAPS
A map shows the performance of a compressor
and allows determination of optimal operating
conditions. It shows the mass flow along the
horizontal axis, typically as a percentage of the
design mass flow rate, or in actual units. The
pressure rise is indicated on the vertical axis as a
ratio between inlet and exit stagnation pressures.
A surge or stall line identifies the boundary to the
left of which the compressor performance rapidly
degrades and identifies the maximum pressure
ratio that can be achieved for a given mass flow.
Contours of efficiency are drawn as well as
performance lines for operation at particular
rotational speeds.

The curved line means the rpm of the compressor


wheel.

The Elliptical circle means the compressor's efficiency


area. It's marked by the percent sign.

The horizontal axis is the amount of air before turbo,


(1 m3/s = 2118.88 cfm, 10 lb/min = 144.718 cfm).
COMPRESOARE VOLUMICE CU PISTON
Reciprocating compressors use pistons
driven by a crankshaft. They can be either
stationary or portable, can be single or multi-
staged, and can be driven by electric motors
or internal combustion engines. Small
reciprocating compressors from 5 to
30 horsepower (hp) are commonly seen in
automotive applications and are typically for
intermittent duty. Larger reciprocating
compressors well over 1000 hp are still
commonly found in large industrial and
petroleum applications. Discharge pressures
can range from low pressure to very high
pressure (>5000 psi or 35 MPa). In certain
applications, such as air compression, multi-
stage double-acting compressors are said to
be the most efficient compressors available,
and are typically larger, noisier, and more
costly than comparable rotary units.
A motor-driven six-cylinder reciprocating
compressor that can operate with two, four or
six cylinders.