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Chapter 5 :

Cell Division
MITOSIS

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MITOSIS
Involves in the process of nuclear division
followed by cytoplasmic division called
cytokinesis
Occur in somatic tissue, all body cell except
reproductive cell which is the gamete.
In plants, occur actively in the meristematic
tissues of the root and shoot tip
Produce 2 daughter cells that have the same
number of chromosome and genetic material
like parent cell.
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Important of mitosis

100 m 200 m 20 m

(a) Reproduction. An amoeba, (b) Growth and development. (c) Tissue renewal. These dividing
a single-celled eukaryote, is This micrograph shows a bone marrow cells (arrow) will
dividing into two cells. Each sand dollar embryo shortly after give rise to new blood cells (LM).
new cell will be an individual the fertilized egg divided, forming
organism (LM). two cells (LM).

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Asexual reproduction in unicellular organism
such as binary fission.
Allowing growth and development in
multicellular organism by increasing the
number of cells through division
Replaces dead cells.
Allow the damage cells to be repaired,
replaced or regenerate.

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The Cell Cycle and How Cells Divide

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DNA
Packaged into chromosomes

Chromosome

Figure 12.3
50 m

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Structure of Chromosomes
DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures
called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of
DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called
histones that support its structure.

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Chromosomes
Non-homologous chromosomes
Look different

Control different traits

Sex chromosomes
Are distinct from each other in their
characteristics
Are represented as X and Y

Determine the sex of the individual, XX being


female, XY being male
In a diploid cell, the chromosomes occur in pairs.
The 2 members of each pair are called
homologous chromosomes or homologues.

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Homologues
Homologous chromosomes:
Look the same
Control the same traits
Independent origin - each one was inherited
from a different parent

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Chromosomes
A diploid cell has two sets of each of its chromosomes
A human has 46 chromosomes (2n = 46)
In a cell in which DNA synthesis has occurred all the chromosomes are
duplicated and thus each consists of two identical sister chromatids

Maternal set of
chromosomes (n = 3)
2n = 6
Paternal set of
chromosomes (n = 3)

Two sister chromatids


of one replicated
chromosome
Centromere

Two nonsister Pair of homologous


chromatids in chromosomes
a homologous pair (one from each set)

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The number of chromosome presents in the
cells is constant and called as chromosomal
number
Chromosome no in nucleus exist in pair
called diploid
Chromosome no in nucleus that exist in
single / half no is haploid- exist in gamete

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Chromosome Duplication
Because of duplication, each condensed chromosome
consists of 2 identical chromatids joined by a centromere.
Each duplicated chromosome contains 2 identical DNA
molecules (unless a mutation occurred), one in each
chromatid:

Non-sister
chromatids

Centromere Duplication

Sister Sister
chromatids chromatids
Two unduplicated
chromosomes Two duplicated chromosomes
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Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Structure of Chromosomes
Diploid - A cell possessing two copies of each chromosome
(human body cells).
Homologous chromosomes are made up of sister

chromatids joined at the centromere.


Haploid - A cell possessing a single copy of each
chromosome (human sex cells).

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Phases of the Cell Cycle
The cell cycle consists of
Interphase normal cell activity

The mitotic phase cell divsion

INTERPHASE

Growth
G1 (DNA synthesis)

Growth
G2

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Phases of the Cell Cycle
Interphase
G1 - primary growth
S - synthesis phase (chromosome replicated)
G2 - secondary growth
M - mitosis
C - cytokinesis

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Interphase
Growth 1 - Cells undergo majority of growth,
synthesis the material required for division.
Protein and new organelles are being sythesised.
Chromosome known are chromatin
Synthesis Synthesis of DNA occur, DNA
undergo replication
Each chromosome replicates to produce sister
chromatid that attached at centromere
Growth 2 Cell continues to grow and remains
metabolically active
Accumulates energy and complete final
preparation for division 16
Chromosome Duplication
In preparation for cell division, DNA is replicated and the chromosomes condense

Each duplicated chromosome has two sister chromatids, which separate during cell
division

0.5 m
A eukaryotic cell has multiple
chromosomes, one of which is
represented here. Before
duplication, each chromosome
has a single DNA molecule. Chromosome
duplication
(including DNA
synthesis)
Once duplicated, a chromosome
Centromere
consists of two sister chromatids
connected at the centromere. Each
chromatid contains a copy of the
DNA molecule.

Sister
Separation chromatids
of sister
chromatids
Mechanical processes separate
the sister chromatids into two
chromosomes and distribute
them to two daughter cells.
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Centrometers Sister chromatids
Mitosis
Each new cell receives one copy of every
chromosome that was present in the original cell.
Produces 2 new cells that are both genetically
identical to the original cell.

DNA duplication
during interphase

Mitosis

Diploid Cell

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Mitotic Division of an Animal Cell

G2 OF INTERPHASE PROPHASE PROMETAPHASE


Centrosomes Aster Fragments
(with centriole pairs) Chromatin Early mitotic Kinetochore
spindle Centromere of nuclear
(duplicated) Nonkinetochore
envelope
microtubules

Nucleolus Nuclear Plasma Chromosome, consisting Kinetochore


envelope membrane of two sister chromatids microtubule
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Mitotic Division of an Animal Cell

METAPHASE ANAPHASE TELOPHASE AND CYTOKINESIS


Metaphase
plate Cleavage Nucleolus
furrow forming

Nuclear
envelope
Spindle Centrosome at Daughter forming
one spindle pole chromosomes
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Prophase
The chromosome condensed and
become tightly coiled, shorter and
visible under light microscope
The nucleolus and nuclear
membrane disappear.
Each duplicated chromosome
PROPHASE
appears as two identical sister
Aster
chromatids joined together by Early mitotic
Centromere
spindle
centromere.
The spindle fibres begins to form
between the centrioles
The centrioles migrates to opposite
poles of the cell
Spindle fibre attached to the
centromeres of each sister
chromatid
Chromosome, consisting
of two sister chromatids
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Metaphase
Sisterchromatid that
attached to METAPHASE
centromeres are lined Metaphase
plate
up on the equator
plate
Spindle fibres are
fully form

Spindle Centrosome at
one spindle pole

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Anaphase
The two sister chromatid
separates at the
centromere.
The sister chromatid are ANAPHASE
pulled apart to opposite
pole by shortening of
spindle fibres
Anaphase end when the
chromosome reach at the
opposite poles
Daughter
chromosomes

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Telophase

Both sets of chromosome


reach the opposite poles of the TELOPHASE AND CYTOKINESIS

cell
Cleavage
The spindle fibres disappear furrow
Nucleolus
forming
New nuclear membrane forms
around each set of chromosome
Nucleolus is reform in nucleus

Nuclear
envelope
forming

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Mitosis in a plant cell
Nucleus Chromatine Chromosome
Nucleolus condensing

Metaphase. The
1 Prophase. 2 Prometaphase. 3 4 Anaphase. The 5 Telophase. Daughter
spindle is complete,
The chromatin We now see discrete chromatids of each nuclei are forming.
and the chromosomes,
is condensing. chromosomes; each chromosome have Meanwhile, cytokinesis
attached to microtubules
The nucleolus is consists of two separated, and the has started: The cell
at their kinetochores,
beginning to identical sister daughter chromosomes plate, which will
are all at the metaphase
disappear. chromatids. Later are moving to the ends divided the cytoplasm
plate.
Although not in prometaphase, the of cell as their in two, is growing
yet visible nuclear envelop will kinetochore toward the perimeter
in the micrograph, fragment. microtubles shorten. of the parent cell.
the mitotic spindle is
staring to from.

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Cytokinesis
Cleavage of cell into two
halves
Animal cells

Cleavage furrow

Plant cells

Cell plate

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Cytokinesis In Animal And Plant Cells

100 m
Cleavage furrow Vesicles Wall of 1 m
forming patent cell Cell plate
cell plate New cell wall

Contractile ring of Daughter cells


microfilaments
Daughter cells
(a) Cleavage of an animal cell (SEM) (b) Cell plate formation in a plant cell (SEM)
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Cytokinesis in animal

- Actin filaments in the


cytoplasm contract
and pulling the
plasma membrane
inward
- The cleavage furrow
pinches at the
equator of the cell
- The cleavage furrow
deepens
progressively until
the cell separate into
2 daughter cell
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Melalui pencerutan
membran plasma di
bahagian tengah
sel.

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Cytokinesis in plant

- Cell plate form at


equator plate
- The cell plates grows
outwards until it
fuses with the
plasma membrane
- New cell walls and
plasma membrane
are form
- The cell plate divide
the cell into 2
daughter cell

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Plat sel yang
terbentuk dari
vesikel berkumpul di
bahagian tengah sel
Plat sel berkembang
ke arah keluar dan
bercantum dengan
membran plasma
Dinding sel baru
terbentuk
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Effect of uncontrolled mitosis
Can cause cancer
Cancer cell will compete with surrounding
normal cells to obtain sufficient nutrients and
energy
If not destroy can grow to form tumor

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Benign: tumor cells remain at original site.
Can be removed surgically or killed by
radiation, usually eliminating any further
cancer development at that site.
Malignant : Cells that break away from the
tumor begin to spread to surrounding tissues
(via the bloodstream or lymph) and start new
tumor. Usually surgery is performed to
remove the tumor, followed by radiation and
chemotherapy.
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Causes of cancer

Damage of DNA
Mutation
Ionising radiation : X rays, UV rays, Gamma
rays
Chemical compound ; tar in tobacco smoke
Carcinogenic compound; formaldehyde

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Plant are cut into small pieces ( explant)

Explants are transfer into culture


medium ( mix of nutrients and growth
hormone)

Explants growth into undifferentiated


cell call callus

Callus are transfer into another medium


for development of shoot and root

Plantlet is form and transfer to soil


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Teknik kultur tisu
Tisu tumbuhan dipotong menjadi cebisan kecil
yang dipanggil sebagai eksplan
Eksplan disteril dan dimasukkan ke dalam medium
kultur yang mengandungi nutrient dan hormone
pertumbuhan
Eksplan akan membahagi secara mitosis dan
membentuk kalus iaitu sekumpulan sel yang belum
membeza
Kalus akan berkembang menjadi embrio dan
seterusnya anak pokok
Anak pokok kemudian dipindahkan ke dalam tanah
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Clonning

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Somatic cell with
An egg cell are
nucleus are
extracted from
extracted from
animal B. the
mammary gland of
nucleus is removed
animal A

The two cells are fused by


stimulating them with electric pulse

The cell divided to form an embryo


that will be implanted into a
surrogate mother

The embryo develops into new


individual (clone)
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Pengklonan
Sel soma dari kelenjar mamalia diekstrak dari biri-biri A
Sel telur (ovum) yang belum disenyawakan diekstrak dari
biri-biri B
Nuklues dari ovum biri-biri B dikeluarkan
Nukleus dari biri-biri A dicantumkan dengan sel telur tanpa
nukleus dari biri-biri B dengan menggunakan kejutan
elektrik
Sel telur membahagi secara mitosis dan membentuk
embrio
Embrio ditempelkan ke dalam uterus ibu tumbangan
Biri-biri baru yang terhasil mempunyai ciri-ciri yang sama
dengan biri-biri A

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Clonning
Process of producing ne individuals from a
single parent by mitosis
ADVANTAGE DISADVANTAGE
1. Many identical plants with 1. Disease spread easily
desirable characteristics because all clones have
2. Overcoming the infertility same resistant
problem 2. No genetic variation
3. Maturation time is shorter 3. The risk of dead/
4. Produce more crops in extinction is higher when
one time there is change in
environment
4. Shorter lifespan

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Kebaikan dan keburukan
Dapat menghasilkan Daya rintangan yang
banyak anak dengan ciri serupa bagi setiap
yang dikehendaki penyakit
Dapat mengatasi Tiada variasi
masalah kemandulan
Peluang untuk pupus
Masa matang lebih
lebih tinggi jika semua
singkat
indivdiu mati apabila
Menghasilkan banyak
terdapat perubahan
anak dalam tempoh 1
persekitaran
masa
Tidak memerlukan agen Jangka hayat lebih
pendebunagaan pendek
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Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles
Living organisms are distinguished by their ability to
reproduce their own kind
Heredity
Is the transmission of traits from one generation to the

next
Variation
Shows that offspring differ somewhat in appearance

from parents and siblings

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Sexual Reproduction
Fertilization and meiosis alternate in sexual life cycles
A life cycle is the generation-to-generation sequence of
stages in the reproductive history of an organism

Key
Haploid
Diploid

n n
Gametes
n

MEIOSIS FERTILIZATION

Zygote
2n 2n

Diploid Mitosis
multicellular
organism
(a) Animals

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Sex Cells - Gametes

Unlike somatic cells, sperm and egg cells


are haploid cells, containing only one set of
chromosomes
At sexual maturity the ovaries and testes
produce haploid gametes by meiosis

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Sexual Reproduction - The Human Life Cycle
Haploid gametes (n = 23)
Haploid (n)
During fertilization, Diploid (2n)
Ovum (n)

sperm and ovum fuse


forming a diploid Sperm
Cell (n)
zygote
MEIOSIS FERTILIZATION
The zygote develops
into an adult organism
Ovary Testis Diploid
zygote
(2n = 46)

Mitosis and
development

Multicellular diploid
adults (2n = 46)

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Meiosis
Cell division that produce 4 daughters with
half nu of chromosome and different genetic
material from parents
Cell has a haploid set of chromosomes
Ensures that the next generation will have:
Diploid number of chromosome

Exchange of genetic information

(combination of traits
that differs from that of either parent)

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Meiosis

Pembahagian sel yang menghasilkan 4 sel


anak yang mempunyai kandungan genetik
yang berbeza dan bilangan kromosom
separuh dari induk
Ini bagi memastikan :
- Bilangan kromosom dalam sepsis
dikekalkan dari satu generasi ke generasi
yang lain
- Terdapat variasi

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Meiosis
Only diploid cells can divide by meiosis.
Prior to meiosis I, DNA replication occurs.
During meiosis, there will be two nuclear divisions, and the result will be
four haploid nuclei.
No replication of DNA occurs between meiosis I and meiosis II.

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Meiosis
Interphase
Homologous pair

Meiosis reduces the of chromosomes


in diploid parent cell

number of chromosome
sets from diploid to Chromosomes

haploid Homologous pair of replicated chromosomes


replicate

Meiosis takes place in Sister

two sets of divisions chromatids Diploid cell with


replicated
chromosomes

Meiosis I reduces the Meiosis I

number of chromosomes 1 Homologous

from diploid to haploid chromosomes


separate

Haploid cells with

Meiosis II produces four Meiosis II


replicated chromosomes

haploid daughter cells 2 Sister chromatids


separate

Haploid cells with unreplicated chromosomes


Figure 13.7 52
Meiosis Phases
Meiosis involves the same four phases seen in
mitosis
prophase

metaphase

anaphase

telophase

They are repeated during both meiosis I and


meiosis II.
The period of time between meiosis I and meiosis
II is called interkinesis.
No replication of DNA occurs during interkinesis
because the DNA is already duplicated.

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Prophase I
Chromosomes begin to condense
In synapsis, the 2 members of each homologous pair
of chromosomes line up side-by-side to form a tetrad
consisting of 4 chromatids
During synapsis, sometimes there is an exchange of
homologous parts between non-sister chromatids.
This exchange is called crossing over
Each tetrad usually has one or more chiasmata, X-
shaped regions where crossing over occurred
Prophase I Nonsister
of meiosis chromatids

Tetrad

Chiasma,
site of
crossing
over 54
Profasa I

Kromosom menebal, memendek dan jelas


kelihatan
Gentian gelendong mula terbentuk
Nukleolus dan membran nucleus
menghilang
Setiap kromatid kembar berpasangan dan
membentuk kromosom homolog dalam
proses yang dipanggil sinapsis
Sinapsis terdiri dari 4 tetrad yang dipanggil
bivalen
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Proses pindah silang iaitu pertukaran bahan
genetik antara kromatid berlaku
Tempat di mana pindah silang berlaku
dipanggil kiasma

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Metaphase I
At metaphase I, homologous chromosme line up
at the metaphase plate, with one chromosome
facing each pole
The spindle fibres attached to the centromere of
each tetrads
PROPHASE I METAPHASE I ANAPHASE I
Centromere Sister chromatids
(with kinetochore) remain attached
Sister Chiasmata
chromatids Metaphase
Spindle plate

Tetrad Microtubule Homologous


attached to chromosomes
kinetochore separate
Homologous chromosomes Tetrads line up Pairs of homologous
(red and blue) pair and chromosomes split up 57
exchange segments; 2n = 6
Metafasa I

Kromosom homolog tersusun di tengah sel,


satah khatulistiwa
Gentian gelendong melekat pada sentromer

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Anaphase I
In anaphase I, pairs of homologous chromosomes
(tetrads) separate
One chromosome moves toward each pole.Sister
chromatids remain attached at the centromere and
move as one unit toward the pole
PROPHASE I METAPHASE I ANAPHASE I
Centromere Sister chromatids
(with kinetochore) remain attached
Sister Chiasmata
chromatids Metaphase
Spindle plate

Tetrad Microtubule Homologous


attached to chromosomes
kinetochore separate
Homologous chromosomes Tetrads line up Pairs of homologous
(red and blue) pair and chromosomes split up 59
exchange segments; 2n = 6
Anafasa I

Kromosom homolog berpisah dan bergerak


ke kutub yang bertentangan
Setiap kromosm masih terdiri daripada
sepasang kromatid kembar

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Telophase I and Cytokinesis
In the beginning of telophase I, each half of the
cell has a haploid set of chromosomes; each
chromosome still consists of two sister chromatids
Cytokinesis usually occurs simultaneously, forming
two haploid daughter cells
In animal cells, a cleavage furrow forms; in plant
cells, a cell plate forms
No chromosome replication occurs between the
end of meiosis I and the beginning of meiosis II
because the chromosomes are already replicated

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Telofasa I dan sitokinesis

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Prophase II
Meiosis II is very similar to mitosis
In prophase II, a spindle apparatus forms
In late prophase II, chromosomes (each still composed of
two chromatids) move toward the metaphase plate
TELOPHASE I AND PROPHASE II TELOPHASE II AND
METAPHASE II ANAPHASE II
CYTOKINESIS CYTOKINESIS

Cleavage Haploid daughter cells


furrow Sister chromatids forming
separate

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Metaphase II
At metaphase II, the sister chromatids are at the
metaphase plate
Because of crossing over in meiosis I, the two sister
chromatids of each chromosome are no longer
genetically identical
TELOPHASE I AND PROPHASE II TELOPHASE II AND
METAPHASE II ANAPHASE II
CYTOKINESIS CYTOKINESIS

Cleavage Haploid daughter cells


furrow Sister chromatids forming
separate

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Anaphase II
At anaphase II, the sister chromatids separate
The sister chromatids of each chromosome now move
as two newly individual chromosomes toward opposite
poles
TELOPHASE I AND PROPHASE II TELOPHASE II AND
METAPHASE II ANAPHASE II
CYTOKINESIS CYTOKINESIS

Cleavage Haploid daughter cells


furrow Sister chromatids forming
separate

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Telophase II and Cytokinesis
In telophase II, the chromosomes arrive at opposite poles
Nuclei form, and the chromosomes begin decondensing
Cytokinesis separates the cytoplasm
At the end of meiosis, there are four daughter cells, each with a haploid
set of unreplicated chromosomes
Each daughter cell is genetically distinct from the others and from the
parent cell
TELOPHASE I AND PROPHASE II TELOPHASE II AND
METAPHASE II ANAPHASE II
CYTOKINESIS CYTOKINESIS

Cleavage Haploid daughter cells


furrow Sister chromatids forming
separate

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A Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis

Mitosis conserves the number of chromosome


sets, producing cells that are genetically identical
to the parent cell
Meiosis reduces the number of chromosomes sets
from two (diploid) to one (haploid), producing cells
that differ genetically from each other and from the
parent cell
The mechanism for separating sister chromatids is
virtually identical in meiosis II and mitosis

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A Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis
Three events are unique to meiosis, and all three
occur in meiosis l:
Synapsis and crossing over in prophase I:
Homologous chromosomes physically connect and
exchange genetic information
At the metaphase plate, there are paired homologous
chromosomes (tetrads), instead of individual replicated
chromosomes
At anaphase I of meiosis, homologous pairs move
toward opposite poles of the cell. In anaphase II of
meiosis, the sister chromatids separate

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A Comparison Of Mitosis And Meiosis
MITOSIS MEIOSIS
Parent cell Chiasma (site of
MEIOSIS I
(before chromosome replication) crossing over)

Prophase Prophase I
Chromosome Chromosome
replication replication Tetrad formed by
Duplicated chromosome 2n = 6 synapsis of homologous
(two sister chromatids) chromosomes

Chromosomes Tetrads
positioned at the positioned at the Metaphase I
Metaphase
metaphase plate metaphase plate

Anaphase Sister chromatids Homologues


Telophase separate during Anaphase I
separate
anaphase Telophase I
during
anaphase I;
sister Haploid
chromatids n=3
Daughter
remain together
cells of
meiosis I
2n 2n
Daughter cells MEIOSIS II
of mitosis

n n n n
Daughter cells of meiosis II

Sister chromatids separate during anaphase II


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Comparison
Mitosis
Meiosis
Homologous
DNA duplication
chromosomes do not
followed by 2 cell
pair up
divisions
No genetic exchange
Sysnapsis
between homologous
Crossing-over chromosomes
One diploid cell One diploid cell
produces 4 produces 2 diploid
haploid cells cells or one haploid
Each new cell cell produces 2
has a unique haploid cells
combination of New cells are
genes genetically identical to
original cell (except for
mutation)

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