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Matek 2

2 april 2013
Complex Numbers
Argand Diagram
Recall that a complex
Imaginary
number has a real axis
component and an imaginary
component. a Real
bi axis
zz == a3 + 2ibi
z = 3 2i
The absolute value of a complex
number is its distance from the
origin.
The names and letters are changing, but
z a b 2 2
this sure looks familiar.

z 32 2 9 4 13
2
The Trig form of a Complex Number
The trig form of the complex number z a bi
is z ( r cos ri sin ) r cos i sin .

r is called the modulus and is the distance from


r a 2 b2 b r sin
the origin to the point. r a b 2 2


a r cos
is called the argument and is the angle
formed with the x-axis. x a
cos
b r r
tan 1

a y b
sin
r r
How is it Different?
In a rectangular system, you go In a trigonometric or polar system, you
left or right and up or down. have a direction to travel and a
distance to travel in that direction.

z 2 cos45 i sin 45
z 2 2i Polar form (2,45)
Converting from Trig Form to Rectangular Form

This ones easy.


1. Evaluate the sin and cos.
2. Distribute in r
Convert 4(cos 30 + i sin 30) to
rectangular form.

1. Evaluate the sin and cos 3 1


4 i
2 2

2. Distribute the 4. 2 3 2i
Converting from Rectangular form to Trig form

1. Find r. r a 2 b 2
b
2. Find . tan 1
a
3. Fill in the blanks in z r cos i sin Convert z = 4 + 3i to trig form.

1. Find r 2. Find 3. Fill in the blanks

r 42 32 16 9 tan 1
3
36.9 z 5 cos 36.9 i sin 36.9
4
r 25 5 Polar form 5,36.9
Multiplying Complex Numbers
To multiply complex numbers in To multiply complex numbers in trig
rectangular form, you would FOIL form, you simply multiply the rs and
and convert i2 into 1. and the thetas.

a bi c di r1 cos 1 i sin 1 r2 cos 2 i sin 2


ac adi bci dbi 2 r1r2 cos 1 2 i sin 1 2
ac adi bci db
ac db ad bc i

The formulas are a scarier than it really is.


multiply z1 z2
Example Where z1 2 3 2i 4 cos 30 i sin 30
z2 3 2 3 2i 6 cos 45 i sin 45

Rectangular form Trig form


z1 z2
z1 z2
2
3 2i 3 2 3 2i 4 cos 30 i sin 30 6 cos 45 i sin 45
6 6 6 6i 6 2i 6 2i 2 4 6 cos 30 45 i sin 30 45
6 6 6 6i 6 2i 6 2 24 cos 75 i sin 75

6
6 6 2 6 6 6 2 i
6 6 6 6 6 2
2 2
r 6 6 2 6 6 2 tan 1 75
6 6 6 2
r 216 72 12 72 216 72 12 72
r 576 24
Dividing Complex Numbers

In rectangular form, you rationalize In trig form, you just divide the rs and
using the complex conjugate. subtract the theta.
a bi r1 cos 1 i sin 1
c di
r2 cos 2 i sin 2
a bi c di

c di c di
r1
r2
cos 1 2 i sin 1 2
ac adi bci bdi 2
c 2 d 2i 2
ac adi bci bd
c2 d 2
ac bd bc ad
2 2
i
c d
2 2
c d
z1
divide
z2
Example Where z1 3 2 3 2i 6 cos 45 i sin 45
z2 2 3 2i 4 cos30 i sin 30
Rectangular form Trig form
3 2 3 2i
6 cos 45 i sin 45
2 3 2i
3 2 3 2i 2 3 2i
4 cos30 i sin 30

cos 45 30 i sin 45 30
2 3 2i 2 3 2 i 6
6 6 6 2i 6 6i 6 2i 2 4
3
12 4i 2
cos15 i sin15
6 6 6 2i 6 6i 6 2 2
12 4
2
6 6 6 2 6 6 6 2
2



6 6 6 2


6 6 6 2 6 6 6 2 i r
16

16

tan 1 16 15
16 16


6 6 6 2


216 72 12 72 216 72 12 72 16
r
256
576 9 3
r
256 4 2
Powers of Complex Numbers
This is horrible in rectangular form. Its much nicer in trig form. You just
raise the r to the power and multiply
theta by the exponent.
a bi
n

a bi a bi a bi ... a bi z r cos i sin


z n r n cos n i sin n
The best way to expand one
of these is using Pascals
triangle and binomial Example
expansion. z 5 cos 20 i sin 20
Youd need to use an i-chart z 3 53 cos 3 20 i sin 3 20
to simplify.
z 3 125 cos 60 i sin 60
Roots of Complex Numbers
There will be as many answers as the index of
the root you are looking for
Square root = 2 answers
Cube root = 3 answers, etc.
Answers will be spaced symmetrically around
the circle
You divide a full circle by the number of answers
to find out how far apart they are
General Process
1. Problem must be in trig form
2. Take the nth root of r. All answers have the
same value for r.
3. Divide theta by r to find the first angle.
4. Divide a full circle by r to find out how much
you add to theta to get to each subsequent
answer.
The formula

z r cos i sin
360k 360k 2 k 2 k
n
z n r cos i sin or
n
r cos i sin
n n n n

k starts at 0 and goes up to n-1


This is easier than it looks.
Example Find the 4th root of z 81 cos80 i sin80

1. Find the 4th root of 81 r 4 81 3


2. Divide theta by 4 to get the 80
20
first angle. 4

3. Divide a full circle (360) by 4 360


90 between answers
to find out how far apart the 4
answers are.

4. List the 4 answers. z1 3 cos 20 i sin 20

The only thing that z2 3 cos 20 90 i sin 20 90 3 cos110 i sin110


changes is the angle. z3 3 cos 110 90 i sin 110 90 3 cos 200 i sin 200
The number of answers z4 3 cos 200 90 i sin 200 90 3 cos 290 i sin 290
equals the number of
roots.
Y-Delta Conversion
These two resistive circuits are equivalent for
voltages and currents external to the Y and D
circuits. Internally, the voltages and currents are
different.
Rc a b
a b
R1 R2

Rb Ra
R3

c
c
RbRc R aR c R aR b
R1 = R2 = R3 =
Ra + Rb + Rc Ra + Rb + Rc Ra + Rb + Rc
D-Y and Y-D Conversion Formulas
Delta-to-Wye conversion Wye-to-Delta conversion
Rc
a b
RbRc R1R2 + R2R3 + R3R1
R1 = Ra =
Ra + Rb + Rc Rb Ra R1

R aR c c R1R2 + R2R3 + R3R1


R2 = Rb =
Ra + Rb + Rc R2
a b

R aR b R1 R2
R1R2 + R2R3 + R3R1
R3 = Rc =
Ra + Rb + Rc R3
R3

c
Circuit Simplification
Find the equivalent resistance R :
Example
ab
2W 2W
a a
18W 12W
6W

9W 4W
b

9W 4W
b
R aRb
R3 = =6
Rb=18 Ra + Rb + Rc
Ra=12
Rc=6 R2=2
3
Exercise 10
Find current I in the circuit.

DEE2113 : Chapter 1 - Sinusoids and Phasor 19


Exercise 10 (cont)

DEE2113 : Chapter 1 - Sinusoids and Phasor 20


Power Factor Correction

1
Electrical Engineering Fundamentals for Non-EE's; B. Rauf 8/29/2017
Topics
Power Factor, Definition, Concept
and Formulas
Power Factor Correction /
Improvement Example
Additional Comments / Discussion
on Power Factor
Power Factor and Loss Calculation
Example
2
Electrical Engineering Fundamentals for Non-EE's; B. Rauf 8/29/2017
Fundamentals Of Electricity

Power Factor, Definition, Concept and


Formula:
Definition: Power Factor is defined as the Ratio of
Real Power (kW) to Apparent Power (kVA). It is
also defined as the quantity cos( - ).
PF = P/S or
PF = cos( - ),
where is the angle of voltage V, where V = VRMS

is the angle of current i = I RMS
% PF = (PF) x 100
3
Electrical Engineering Fundamentals for Non-EE's; B. Rauf 8/29/2017
Fundamentals Of Electricity
I

Zc= Xc -90=-j Xc -
Power Factor, contd.: V

Leading Power Factor:


Power factor is said to be leading when,
the angle of the current, exceeds , the angle
of the voltage.
In other words, ( - ) is negative.
Impedance, Zc, due to pure capacitance
reactance, Xc, has a negative angle. Or, Zc = Xc
-90

4
Electrical Engineering Fundamentals for Non-EE's; B. Rauf 8/29/2017
Fundamentals Of Electricity
Z = X +90=+j X
V
l l l

Pf Angle
=-
Power Factor, contd.: I

Lagging Power Factor:


Power factor is said to be lagging when, the angle of
the current, is less than , the angle of the voltage.
In other words, ( - ) is positive.
Impedance, Zl, due to pure inductive reactance, Xl,
has a positive angle. Or, Zl = Xl 90
In Inductive Circuits, add Capacitance, or
Capacitive Reactance, Xc, to offset the Inductive 90 Deg.
V
Reactance, Xl, and to Increase the PF. I

V
5
Electrical Engineering Fundamentals for Non-EE's; B. Rauf 8/29/2017
Fundamentals Of Electricity

Power Factor, contd :


C = ( Q 1 - Q2 )
2 f V2
Where,
C = Capacitance (F) required to reduce the
Reactive or Imaginary Power from Q1 to Q2
Q1 = Initial, higher Reactive Power, in VARs
Q2 = Improved, lower Reactive Power, in VARs
V = Voltage, in Volts
f = Frequency, in Hz

6
Electrical Engineering Fundamentals for Non-EE's; B. Rauf 8/29/2017
3-phase exercises
Exercise 3:
A 0.6MW, 416V, 3-phase, 50Hz load has a
power factor of 0.5.
Determine the necessary capacitors and show
their connections so as to improve the power
factor to 0.9.
Solution 3

The power factor improvement is done by


connecting a capacitor between @ phase &
the neutral point.
[Though it is possible to connect a capacitor
between phases but then the capacitors are
more expensive because of the higher (line)
voltages].
Star-Star connection
Supply-load connections

i1
C
Supply Load
n n
C

i2
C

i3
Solution 3

Since @ capacitor is connected across a phase


& neutral; phase voltages must be used.
We are at liberty to use the phasor diagram
studied earlier.
Solution 3
c
cos 0.5
V
cos 0.9

I C I sin I 1 sin
1

I cos I cos
1

I cos
I 1

cos
I C I (sin cos tan )
Solution 3

But
P 3VL I L cos
where I L I
P 0.6 *10 6
I
3VL cos 3 * 416 * 0.5
6
10
1,388
416 3
Solution 3
106 0.5 sin
IC [sin ]
416 3 0. 9
10 6 3 5 19
[ ]
416 3 2 9 10
865.9
Voltage across capacitor
1
VC I C Z C I C *
2fC
Solution 3
IC

100C
IC IC
C
100VC 100 * 416
3
0.01839 F 18390F
3 cap of 183908
In pratice use nearest higher val uable available on market.
Y-Delta Conversion
These two resistive circuits are equivalent for
voltages and currents external to the Y and D
circuits. Internally, the voltages and currents are
different.
Rc a b
a b
R1 R2

Rb Ra
R3

c
c
RbRc R aR c R aR b
R1 = R2 = R3 =
Ra + Rb + Rc Ra + Rb + Rc Ra + Rb + Rc
D-Y and Y-D Conversion Formulas
Delta-to-Wye conversion Wye-to-Delta conversion
Rc
a b
RbRc R1R2 + R2R3 + R3R1
R1 = Ra =
Ra + Rb + Rc Rb Ra R1

R aR c c R1R2 + R2R3 + R3R1


R2 = Rb =
Ra + Rb + Rc R2
a b

R aR b R1 R2
R1R2 + R2R3 + R3R1
R3 = Rc =
Ra + Rb + Rc R3
R3

c
Circuit Simplification
Find the equivalent resistance R :
Example
ab
2W 2W
a a
18W 12W
6W

9W 4W
b

9W 4W
b
R aRb
R3 = =6
Rb=18 Ra + Rb + Rc
Ra=12
Rc=6 R2=2
3
Exercise 10
Find current I in the circuit.

DEE2113 : Chapter 1 - Sinusoids and Phasor 38


Exercise 10 (cont)

DEE2113 : Chapter 1 - Sinusoids and Phasor 39


Power Factor Correction

1
Electrical Engineering Fundamentals for Non-EE's; B. Rauf 8/29/2017
Topics
Power Factor, Definition, Concept
and Formulas
Power Factor Correction /
Improvement Example
Additional Comments / Discussion
on Power Factor
Power Factor and Loss Calculation
Example
2
Electrical Engineering Fundamentals for Non-EE's; B. Rauf 8/29/2017
Fundamentals Of Electricity

Power Factor, Definition, Concept and


Formula:
Definition: Power Factor is defined as the Ratio of
Real Power (kW) to Apparent Power (kVA). It is
also defined as the quantity cos( - ).
PF = P/S or
PF = cos( - ),
where is the angle of voltage V, where V = VRMS

is the angle of current i = I RMS
% PF = (PF) x 100
3
Electrical Engineering Fundamentals for Non-EE's; B. Rauf 8/29/2017
Fundamentals Of Electricity
I

Zc= Xc -90=-j Xc -
Power Factor, contd.: V

Leading Power Factor:


Power factor is said to be leading when,
the angle of the current, exceeds , the angle
of the voltage.
In other words, ( - ) is negative.
Impedance, Zc, due to pure capacitance
reactance, Xc, has a negative angle. Or, Zc = Xc
-90

4
Electrical Engineering Fundamentals for Non-EE's; B. Rauf 8/29/2017
Fundamentals Of Electricity
Z = X +90=+j X
V
l l l

Pf Angle
=-
Power Factor, contd.: I

Lagging Power Factor:


Power factor is said to be lagging when, the angle of
the current, is less than , the angle of the voltage.
In other words, ( - ) is positive.
Impedance, Zl, due to pure inductive reactance, Xl,
has a positive angle. Or, Zl = Xl 90
In Inductive Circuits, add Capacitance, or
Capacitive Reactance, Xc, to offset the Inductive 90 Deg.
V
Reactance, Xl, and to Increase the PF. I

V
5
Electrical Engineering Fundamentals for Non-EE's; B. Rauf 8/29/2017
Fundamentals Of Electricity

Power Factor, contd :


C = ( Q 1 - Q2 )
2 f V2
Where,
C = Capacitance (F) required to reduce the
Reactive or Imaginary Power from Q1 to Q2
Q1 = Initial, higher Reactive Power, in VARs
Q2 = Improved, lower Reactive Power, in VARs
V = Voltage, in Volts
f = Frequency, in Hz

6
Electrical Engineering Fundamentals for Non-EE's; B. Rauf 8/29/2017
3-phase exercises
Exercise 3:
A 0.6MW, 416V, 3-phase, 50Hz load has a
power factor of 0.5.
Determine the necessary capacitors and show
their connections so as to improve the power
factor to 0.9.
Solution 3

The power factor improvement is done by


connecting a capacitor between @ phase &
the neutral point.
[Though it is possible to connect a capacitor
between phases but then the capacitors are
more expensive because of the higher (line)
voltages].
Star-Star connection
Supply-load connections

i1
C
Supply Load
n n
C

i2
C

i3
Solution 3

Since @ capacitor is connected across a phase


& neutral; phase voltages must be used.
We are at liberty to use the phasor diagram
studied earlier.
Solution 3
c
cos 0.5
V
cos 0.9

I C I sin I 1 sin
1

I cos I cos
1

I cos
I 1

cos
I C I (sin cos tan )
Solution 3

But
P 3VL I L cos
where I L I
P 0.6 *10 6
I
3VL cos 3 * 416 * 0.5
6
10
1,388
416 3
Solution 3
106 0.5 sin
IC [sin ]
416 3 0. 9
10 6 3 5 19
[ ]
416 3 2 9 10
865.9
Voltage across capacitor
1
VC I C Z C I C *
2fC
Solution 3
IC

100C
IC IC
C
100VC 100 * 416
3
0.01839 F 18390F
3 cap of 183908
In pratice use nearest higher val uable available on market.