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Classification of Steels
Type of Steel Percentage of Carbon
Mild Steel Upto 0.25%
Medium carbon 0.25 0.45
High Carbon 0.45 1.50
Adding metals such as Ni, Cr, V, Ti, Nb etc produces wide range of alloy steels.

1.4 % C Scissors / Knives
1.6 1.2 % C Drilling items
1.0 % C Axe
Carbon %

1.2 0.9 % C Cutting blades

0.6 % C Rail wheels 0.5 % C Rails
0.2 % C Heavy vessel plates
0.1 % C Structures
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Why Steel Making ?
Hot Metal Final Steel
Blast Chemistry Chemistry

C 4.5 0.03

Si 0.8 0.2

S 0.045 0.005

P 0.14 0.005

Mn 0.06 0.5

Al 0.025
Corex Ni. Cr, Nb,
V, Ti,
Steelmaking Route

Steelmaking Secondary
Steelmaking Continuous
Casting Rolling
Primary Secondary Continuous
Pre- Treatment Steelmaking Steelmaking Casting

Steel Making
Secondary Metallurgy or Ladle Metallurgy
Objectives of secondary steelmaking

De-oxidation -Removal of Oxygen

Desulphurization -To sulfur concentrations as low as


Alloying -Addition of alloying elements

Micro cleanliness -Removal of nonmetallic inclusions

Inclusion morphology -Changing the composition of

remaining impurities to improve the microstructure of the

Superheat Control - + / -5 degree C

Composition adjustments

Blast Furnace Pre-Treatment Converter Caster

C 4.5 4.2 0.045 0.03
Si 0.8 0.15 0.005 0.20
S 0.045 0.010 0.010 0.005
P 0.14 0.010 0.010 0.005
Mn 0.06 0.05 0.01 0.50
Al 0.025
** Ni, Cr, Nb, V, T
Argon oxygen decarburization (AOD) is a process primarily used in
stainless steelmaking and other high grade alloys with oxidizable elements
such as chromium and aluminum.

After initial melting the metal is then

transferred to an AOD vessel where it
will be subjected to three steps of

1. Decarburization
2. Reduction
3. Desulphurization
The decarburization step is controlled by ratios of oxygen to argon or
nitrogen to remove the carbon from the metal bath.
The gases are usually blown through a top lance (oxygen only) and tuyeres
in the sides/bottom (oxygen with an inert gas shroud).
In the stages of blowing carbon is removed by the combination of oxygen
and carbon forming CO gas.

4 Cr(bath) + 3 O2 2 Cr2O3(slag)
Cr2O3(slag) + 3 C(bath) 3 CO(gas) + 2 Cr(bath)

To drive the reaction to the forming of CO, the partial pressure of CO is

lowered using argon or nitrogen.
The burning of carbon increases the bath temperature.
By the end of this process around 97% of Cr is retained in the steel.
after a desired carbon and temperature level have been reached the
process moves to reduction.
Reduction recovers the oxidized elements such as chromium from the
To achieve this, alloy additions are made with elements that have a higher
affinity for oxygen than chromium, using either a silicon alloy or aluminum.
The reduction mix also includes lime (CaO) and fluorspar (CaF2).
The addition of lime and fluorspar help with driving the reduction of Cr2O3
and managing the slag, keeping the slag fluid and volume small.
Desulphurization is achieved by having a high lime concentration in the
slag and a low oxygen activity in the metal bath.
S(bath) + CaO(slag) CaS(slag) + O(bath)
So, additions of lime are added to dilute sulfur in the metal bath. Also,
aluminum or silicon may be added to remove oxygen.
Extensive decarburization is achievable with a Vacuum Oxygen
Decarburization (VOD) unit.

The charge is melted in an arc

furnace and the molten metal with
around 0.7-0.8% carbon is transferred
To the vod system.
This unit is normally used for the
deep decarburization of high-alloyed
steel grades, usually to remove carbon
without affecting the content of
chromium in the production of
stainless steel grades.

The carbon can be lowered to around 0.02% at around 15-18% chromium at

a temp. 1600*c. & time taken by vod process is about 2 hr to 2 hr 30 min.

Extensive decarburization with low chromium losses.

Flexibility to use high carbon alloying materials of lower cost.
High rate of chromium recovery by proper additions.
Chemical heating of liquid steel.
Improved conditions for desulfurization by proper additions.
Improved conditions for Inclusion flotation.
CLU process is similar to the AOD (argon oxygen decarburization) process
for making stainless steels. CLU refers to the Creusot-Loire Uddeholm
It also uses liquid steel from an electric arc
furnace (EAF) or any other similar primary steel
making furnace.
The major development of the CLU process
was the idea to use superheated steam as the
diluting gas instead of argon (Ar) gas which is
used in the AOD process.
A mixture of oxygen, steam, argon , nitrogen
and air is blown from the bottom. Depending on
the chemestry bath.

The presence of the steam controlls the temp around 1650-1680*c.

Chromium oxidized earlier are reduced back by addition of Fe-Si , Cr-si.
H2O (g) + 241.9 kJ/mol = H2 (g) + 0.5 O2 (g)
The steam dissociates in the steel, and the hydrogen (H2) acts as a flushing
gas in the same way as Ar in the AOD process, and the O2 acts as a refining
The process the steel bath. This helps in controlling the temperature of the
steel bath. of dissociation of steam is endothermic and takes heat from
the steel bath. This helps in controlling the temperature of the steel bath.

The possibility of controlling the temperature during the decarburization.
The cost of dilution gas is low.
The process uses low priced ferrochromium (Fe-Cr) with high Si and C
The low operating temperature.

Its primary functions are:

Reheating of liquid steel through electric power conducted by graphite
Homogenization of steel temperature and chemistry through inert gas
Formation of a slag layer that protects refractory from arc damage,
and transfers heat to the liquid steel, trap inclusions and metal oxides, and
provide the means for desulphurization.

Secondary functions that can be included with a ladle furnace are:

Alloy additions to provide bulk or trim chemical control

Cored wire addition for trimming or morphology control
Provide a means for deep desulphurization
Provide a means for dephosphorization
Act as a buffer for down stream steelmaking equipment
The function of the porous plug is to provide argon gas stirring of the
molten metal to promote homogenization.
A top lance mechanism serves as a back up means for bath stirring.
The gas supply connection to the ladle isautomatically made when the
ladle is placed on the transfer car.
Fumes and particulates generated during heating and alloying operations
at the LF will exit through the various openings in the roof.

For vaccum decarburization oxygen lance is introduced through a

vaccum sealed port located in the cover.
When the decarburization and vaccum degassing is over the 1st cover
is replaced by the 2nd cover which contains three electrodes and final
alloying and temp adjustment are then made.

To remove Hydrogen and nitrogen for improved mechanical properties.
Removal of Oxygen for cleanliness.
To produce steel of very low carbon.
To bring desulphurisation by reagents.
Greater recovery for costly alloying elements
RH Degasser

Developed by Rheinstahl Heinrich Shutte

at Germany in 1957

The recirculation (RH) degasser is used for the

removal of carbon and other impurity elements.

It comprises a pair of 'snorkels' which are

lowered into the liquid steel.

The pressure in the vessel is reduced to about

1-3 torr (1 torr = 1 mmHg).

Argon is injected through tuyeres in one of the

snorkels, forcing the steel up into the unit and
out again through the other snorkel.

In some units, oxygen is injected through a

lance in order to assist decarburization.
Where there is metal, metallurgist
should be there
Secondary steelmaking
Stirring injection
processes injection

Injection injection
processes Wire feeding

Stream degassing
Vacuum R-H degassing
processes D-H degassing

Reheating VOD process

VAD process
processes Ladle furnace
Stirring processes
It is process of injection through the bottom of the
ladle or by the means of a top lance.
Stirring consists of purging the liquid steel by inert
gas generally argon or sometimes nitrogen.
The objective is all cases is to make sure that the
steel is consistent in temperature and composition,
and, if possible ,to remove impurities.
Injection processes
It is possible to carry out deoxidation
,desulphurization and inclusion modification
introducing suitable material in the form of powder
or wire.
Material is blown into the molten steel in the ladle
at a high pressure using submerged top lance with
the help of a carrier gas.
Vacuum processes
Vacuum is created about 0.5torr is induced to
reduce the partial pressure of hydrogen ,nitrogen
and carbon monoxide in the ambient atmosphere .
So, that degassing ,decarburization and deoxidation
can be achieved.
Reheating processes
Heat losses occur due to secondary steelmaking to
atmosphere ,it is necessary to compensate the
temperature by providing additional temperature.