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Unde electromagnetice

Unda transversala plana


Clasificarea undelor electromagnetice

Frecventa independenta de mediu 1Hz=1/s


Legile reflexiei si refractiei

Raza incident Raza reflectat


I I'

mediul 1 v1

mediul 2 v2
I=I

sin I v1 cv1 n 2

sin R v 2 cv 2 n1
R
Raza refractat
Reflexie si refractie

Indice de refractie, n=c/v > 1


Spectrul luminii albe
DISPERSIA UNDELOR

Dac viteza v=v(frecventa) - - mediu dispersiv-


Refracia are loc sub unghiuri diferite
Difractia luminii pe o fanta
Interferenta luminii
Interferenta pe doua fante
Unde transversale plane
n punctul P: E=E1 + E2
Asin(t+) S1 P

Asin(t) S2

E1=Eosin(t+1+) E2=Eosin(t + 2)
1=x1/v1 2=x2/v2

1 2 1 2
E 2 Eo cos sin(t )
2 2

1 2
E=Rsin(t+) R 2 Eo cos
2

=constanta in timp
undele sunt coerente
I ~ E R sin (t
2 2 2
)
2
Intensitatea luminii:
2
I mediu I max cos ( )
2
Distanta dintre surse variabila
Lungimea de unda constanta

Distanta dintre surse constanta


Lungimea de unda de unda
variabila
Lumina polarizata
Polarizor
Fenomenul de birefringenta
Unda ordinata = viteza nu depinde de directie
Unda extraordinara = viteza depinde de directie
calcite
cal
cit
e
calcite
calcite
ordinary
ray, extraordinary
(stays stationary) ray,
(rotates)
Back to birefringence/interference colors
Observation:
=retardation
frequency of light
fast ray
(low n) remains unchanged
slow ray
during splitting,
(high n) regardless of material

d
mineral F= V/
grain
if light speed changes,
plane polarized
light
must also change

is related to color; if
lower polarizer
changes, color also changes
anisotropic minerals - uniaxial indicatrix
c-axis

c-axis

calcite

quartz
Uniaxial indicatrix
(biaxial ellipsoid)

c=Z

c=Z
n
n
n
a=X n
a=X
b=Y b=Y
http://www.brocku.ca/earthsciences/people/gfinn/optical/unindctx.htm
Propagate light along the c-axis, note what
happens to it in plane of thin section

c=Z
n

n n
n
a=X
b=Y

n - n = 0
therefore, =0: grain stays black
(same as the isotropic case)
Now propagate light perpendicular to c-axis
N
n - n > 0
therefore, > 0

nn
n

W E
nn

n n
n

n
n
S

Grain changes color upon rotation.


Grain will go black whenever indicatrix
axis is E-W or N-S

This orientation will show the maximum of the mineral


Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)

Unde electromagnetice de energie mare


Detection of Buried Glacier ice