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Unit 1

Lecture 1

Introduction to Data communication

Syllabus of Unit 1
Data Communication: Introduction
Data representation
Data flow and basic model
Serial & Parallel transmission
Modes of data transmission
Encoding: Unipolar, Polar, Bipolar
Line & Block codes
Data compression
Lossy & Lossless techniques
Review of analog & digital
Transmission methods.

A Foreword

What is Data?
What is Communication?
What is Data Communication?
What is the need of Data Communication?
What is Data?
Data is defined as the entities that convey
meaning or information. The data is
represented in electric or electromagnetic
Data can be two types :

1. Analog data
2. Digital data
Analog data :
Analog data is the type of data that varies
continuously (smoothly) with respect to time.
Voice and Video are the best examples of
analog data. The other examples are
temperature, pressure etc.
Digital data :
Digital data is the type of data that can take on
discrete(clearly fixed) values. The examples of
digital data are text and integers.
What is data communication?
The aim of data communication and networking is
to facilitate the exchange of data such as audio,
text, video between any points in the world
The word Data refers to the information which is
presented in a form that is agreed by the users and
creators of data.
Data communication is the exchange of data
between two devices via some form of transmission
medium, e.g. Computer to Computer, Computer to
printer, sending email, browsing internet sites such
as Facebook, Instagram, twitter & LinkedIn etc. 7
Components of Data communication?
It has the following five components
1. Message
2. Sender
3. Medium
4. Receiver
5. Protocol

Figure Five components of data communication
1 Message
Message is nothing but information or data
which is to be sent from one point to the other
A message can be in the form of sound, text,
number, picture, video or combination of them.
2 Sender
Sender is the device which sends the message.
3 Medium
It is the physical path over which the message
travels from the sender to the receiver, it can be
wired or wireless.

4 Receiver
It is the device which receives the message.
5 Protocol
Protocol is defined as the set of rules which
govern data communication.
The connection of two devices takes place via
the communication medium, but the actual
communication between them will take place
with the help of protocol.
Fundamentals characteristics of Data communication?

The fundamental characteristics of a Data

communication system are:
1. Delivery
2. Accuracy
3. Timeliness

1. Delivery
The data should be delivered to the correct
destination. It should reach only to the intended
user and not to any other. 12
2. Accuracy
There is a possibility of data alternation or corruption
when it is travelling over a communication medium.
This will affect the accuracy of the received data.
The data communication system should be such that
it should deliver data accurately.

3. Timelines
For the audio and video data, the system should
deliver the data in a timely manner i.e. deliver as it is
produced without any time delay.
Such a data delivery is called as real-time
transmission of data.

Definition of communication channel
The medium through which communication is made is
called as communication medium or communication
It uses electronic or electromagnetic signals from one place
to other.
The communication medium can be conducting wires,
cables, optical fiber or free space atmosphere.
There are two types communication medium:
1. Wired communication or line communication.
2. Wireless communication or radio communication

Model of Communication System

Description of model of data communication

Suppose that the input device and transmitter are

the components of a personal computer. The user of
this PC wants to send a message to another m PC.

Then the message m will be in the form of a digital

bit stream and labeled as input data as shown in

The sender PC is connected to some transmission

medium such as a local network or a telephone line,
by an input/output device such as a local network
transceiver or a modem.
The input data are transferred to an transmitter as a
sequence of voltage shifts that represent bits on a
transmission cable or communication bus.
The transmitter is connected directly to the medium
and converts the incoming digital bit stream into an
analog single suitable for transmission over the
communication cable.
The analog transmitter signals travels on the
transmission medium and is subjected to a number
of impairments, before reaching the receiver.
Due to this impairments, the receiver signal may be
different from the transmitted signal.
The receiver tries to estimate the original
signal based on the distorted received signal,
and the knowledge of transmission medium.

A sequence of digital bits is produced at the

output of the receiver.

These bits are then sent to the destination

which is another PC. The signal m represent
the output information which is represented to
the user and can be seen on the computer
screen or printed using a printer.