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Digital Microwave

Communication Principles

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Copyright 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.


Transmission Methods
in Current Communications Networks
Coaxial cable communication

Microwave TE Optical fiber communication

Microwave TE
MUX/DEMUX Microwave MUX/DEMUX
communication

Satellite communication

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Definition of Microwave
Microwave
Microwave is a kind of electromagnetic wave. In a broad sense, the
microwave frequency range is from 300 MHz to 300 GHz. But In
microwave communication, the frequency range is generally from 3
GHz to 30 GHz.

According to the characteristics of microwave propagation, microwave


can be considered as plane wave.

The plane wave has no electric field and magnetic field longitudinal
components along the propagation direction. The electric field and
magnetic field components are vertical to the propagation direction.
Therefore, it is called transverse electromagnetic wave and TEM wave
for short.

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Microwave Frequency Band
Selection and RF Channel Configuration (1)
Generally-used frequency bands in digital microwave transmission:
7G/8G/11G/13G/15G/18G/23G/26G/32G/38G (defined by ITU-R Recommendations)

1.5 GHz 2.5 GHz


Regional network

3.3 GHz Long haul 11 GHz


trunk network
Regional network, local network,
2/8/34
Mbit/s and boundary network

34/140/155 Mbit/s

2/8/34/140/155 Mbit/s
GHz

1 2 3 4 5 8 10 20 30 40 50

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Microwave Frequency Band
Selection and RF Channel Configuration (2)
In each frequency band, subband frequency ranges, transmitting/receiving spacing
(T/R spacing), and channel spacing are defined.

Frequency range

f0 (center frequency)
Low frequency band High frequency band

T/R spacing
Protection T/R spacing
spacing

Channel Adjacent channel Channel


spacing T/R spacing spacing

f1 f2 fn f1 f2 fn

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Microwave Equipment Category

System Digital microwave Analog microwave

MUX/DEMUX
Mode PDH SDH

Small and medium Large capacity


Capacity capacity (216E1, 34M) (STM-0, STM-1, 2xSTM-1)

(Discontinued)

Trunk radio

Structure
Split-mount radio

All outdoor radio

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Split-Mount Microwave Equipment (1)
The RF unit is an outdoor unit (ODU).
The IF, signal processing, and Antenna
MUX/DEMUX units are integrated in
the indoor unit (IDU). The ODU and IF cable
IDU are connected through an IF cable.

ODU
The ODU can either be directly
(Outdoor Unit)
mounted onto the antenna or
connected to the antenna through a
short soft waveguide.
IDU
Although the capacity is smaller than (Indoor Unit)
the trunk, due to the easy installation
and maintenance, fast network
construction, its the most widely used
microwave equipment. Split-mount microwave
equipment

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Split-Mount Microwave Equipment (2)

Unit Functions

Antenna: Focuses the RF signals transmitted by ODUs and increases the signal

gain.

ODU: RF processing, conversion of IF/RF signals.

IF cable: Transmitting of IF signal, management signal and power supply of ODU.

IDU: Performs access, dispatch, multiplex/demultiplex, and

modulation/demodulation for services.

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Split-Mount Microwave Equipment
Installation
Separate Mount Direct Mount
antenna
(direct mount)

antenna
(separate mount)
ODU

Soft waveguide

ODU IF cable IF cable

IDU IF port
IDU IF port

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Microwave Antenna (1)

Parabolic antenna Cassegrainian antenna


Antennas are used to send and receive microwave signals.
Parabolic antennas and cassegrainian antennas are two common types of microwave antennas.

Microwave antenna diameters includes: 0.3m, 0.6m, 1.2m, 1.8m,2.0m, 2.4m, 3.0m, 3.2metc.

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Microwave Antenna (2)
Different frequency channels in same frequency band can share one antenna.

Channe Channe
l l
1 1
T
x 1 1
R
x

n n
T
x n n
R
x

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Main-lobeSide-lobe
Main-lobe: maximal radiation intensity
Side-lobe: else lobe

Main-lobe

Side-
lobe

This concept is very important.

When we adjust the antenna, we will use this concept!


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Antenna Adjustment (1)

Side lobe
Side view

Half-power angle Main lobe Tail lobe

Side lobe
Top view
Half-power angle Main lobe Tail lobe

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Antenna Adjustment (2)
During antenna adjustment, change the direction
vertically or horizontally. Meanwhile, use a multimeter to
test the RSSI at the receiving end. Usually, the voltage
wave will be displayed as shown in the lower right corner.
The peak point of the voltage wave indicates the main lobe
position in the vertical or horizontal direction. Large-scope
adjustment is unnecessary. Perform fine adjustment on the
antenna to the peak voltage point.

AGC
When antennas are poorly aligned, a small voltage may Voltage
be detected in one direction. In this case, perform coarse detection point
adjustment on the antennas at both ends, so that the VAGC
antennas are roughly aligned.

Angle
The antennas at both ends that are well aligned face a
Side lobe position
little bit upward. Though 12 dB is lost, reflection Main lobe position
interference will be avoided.

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Antenna Adjustment (3)

During antenna adjustment, the two

wrong adjustment cases are show here.

One antenna is aligned to another

antenna through the side lobe. As a

result, the RSSI cannot meet the

requirements.

Wrong Wrong Correct

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Tx/Rx space and high/low site
Tx/Rx space
determined by the state
Different frequency has different Tx/Rx space

High/Low site
High site: Transmission frequency is higher than receival frequency.
Low site: Transmission frequency is lower than receival frequency.

Pay attention: High site and Low site are forbidden in one station!

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FADING
Changes of transmitting media,such as, atmosphere, link, time, altitude,climate etc.
Fading due to multipath arising from surface reflection
Attenuation due to atmospheric gases;
Attenuation due to rainsnow

Type of fading:
fast fading and slow fading;
fast fading: the channel impulse response changes rapidly within the symbol duration.
slow fading:the channel impulse response changes at a rate much lower than the
transmitted base band signal.
up fading and down fading;
up fading: direct wave arrives later than reflecting wave;
down fading: direct wave arrives faster than reflecting wave

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FADING
Main cause: Rain snow for frequencies > 10 GHz
The frequency is higherthe Rain Fading is more!

-80 < Pr < -20 dBm

Receiver Demodulator

A B

CAG
FI

Digital
Signal

Transmitter
dBm dBm IF Level 0 dBr 2dB

A B
W0 Signal
IF W C
Time N Time
Noise Noise

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Polarization

- The time varying direction and amplitude of the electric field vector of the
electromagnetic (radio) wave
- Point- to- point microwave paths can be either vertically or horizontally
polarized
- Vertical to horizontal isolation is about 30 dB

E
E

Vertical polarization Horizontal polarization

The polarization must be identical in one hop!

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Vertically Polarized
Waveguide
Horizontally Polarized
Waveguide

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Vertical polarization

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Horizontal polarization

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Thank You
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