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KEROSENE

&
FUEL OIL

Kerosene&Fuel Oils AE357(Group 6) 1


TOPIC OVERVIEW
Definition
Properties
Standard
Synthesis
Testing
Application

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KEROSENE
Lamp Oil
Paraffin(oil)

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PROPERTIES
Properties of Kerosene
OF KEROSENE
Property Value
Melting point -51
Boiling point 175-325
colorless to pale
Appearance straw
Density 0.81 g/mL
Odor odorless
Kinematic viscosity 2.7 at 20

Molecular weight 170 (approximately,


C10-C16 hydrocarbon)

insoluble in water,
Solubility
Solubility
miscible
miscible in
in all
all
petroleum solvents
petroleum solvents
Flash
Flash point
point 65-85
*Smoke
*Smoke point
point 20-25
20-25 mm
mm (good)
(good)
Gravity
Gravity API
API 40
40
Auto-ignition
Auto-ignition
Temperature
230
Temperature
Pour
Pour point
point -18

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KEROSENE STANDARD

ASTM D 3699
No. 1-K
Special low-sulfur
Use in nonflue-connected (ventless) burner
appliances and wick-fed illuminating lamps.

No. 2-K
Regular grade
Use in flue-connected burner appliances and
wick-fed illuminating lamps.

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TEST METHOD OF KEROSENE
Test for Smoke Point for Kerosene and Aviation Turbine fuel

Apparatus and Materials


The smoke point is the maximum flame height in
millimeters at which kerosene will burn without smoking Smoke point lamp.

low smoking tendency ( less able to produce smoke)

Discussion For kerosene we have got an average of 24.6 mm smoke point


For (Diesel) we got we have recorded an average of 19 mm smoke point + Sample of kerosene and diesel fuel
Due to the higher aromatic contents of the (Diesel) which effect on the smoke point

Safety and environmental Increasing the paraffinic contents


Purposes Designing Improvement Decrease the smoking tendency
Decreasing the ratio of C/H of kerosene
Quality 7
Kerosene&Fuel Oils AE357(Group 6)
APPLICATION OF KEROSENE
1.Heating oil 2. Transportation

Tractor vaporizing oil

Jet Engine Fuel


Kerosene heater

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APPLICATION OF KEROSENE
3.Fire Entertainment

Fire breathing

Fire poi fire dancing

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APPLICATION OF KEROSENE
4. Clean bicycle and motorcycle

Clean Your Bike Engine With Kerosene

5. Remove candle wax

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FUEL OIL

Residual Fuel
LGO
HGO
Bunker Fuel Oil
Bunker fuel A
Bunker fuel B
Bunker fuel C
Furnace Oil

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PROPERTIES OF FUEL OIL
Properties of Fuel Oil
Property Value
Appearance Dark, viscous
Boiling range 185-500
Solubility Insoluble in water
Specific gravity 0.9371
Density at 15 0.89-0.95 g/ml
*Kinematic viscosity at 50 370 centistokes
Flash point 66
Gravity API 19.5
Auto-ignition Temperature 470
Pour point 24

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FUEL OIL STANDARD 1
ASTM classification system: based on early refining and combustion engineering practices.
6 classes:
Number 1: volatile distillate oil for vaporizing pot-type burners.
Coal oil, stove oil and range oil

Number 2: distillate for home heating oil

Number 3: distillate oil for burners requiring low-viscosity fuel. (Merged into number 2, the term is
rarely used)

Number 4: commercial heating oil for burner installations (without preheaters)

Number 5: residual-type industrial heating oil requiring preheating to 77 104 C.


Navy Special Fuel Oil, Navy Special Furnace Fuel Oil

Number 6: high-viscosity residual oil requiring preheating to 104 127 C. May contain various
undesirable impurities(water, mineral soil) Oils AE357(Group 6)
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FUEL OIL STANDARD 2
Bunker Standard
Bunker A : No. 2 fuel oil
Bunker B : No. 4 or 5 fuel oil
Bunker C : No. 6 fuel oil

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FUEL OIL STANDARD 3
Maritime Field

1. HFO(Heavy Fuel Oil): pure or nearly pure residual oil = No. 6 fuel oil

2. IFO(Intermediate Fuel Oil): gasoil+heavy fuel oil (less gasoil than MDO)

3. MDO(Marine Diesel Oil): gasoil+heavy fuel oil, may contain very small amou

nts of black refinery feed stocks, has a low viscosity=not need to be heated

4. MFO(Marine Fuel Oil): same as HFO

5. MGO(Marine Gas Oil): =No. 2 fuel oil, made from distillate only
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FUEL OIL STANDARD 4
Marine fuels are often classified on the international bunker markets
with their maximum viscosity (set by ISO 8217)
The fuels listed below in order of cost, from least to most expensive
1. IFO380 : Intermediate fuel oil with a maximum viscosity of 380 Centistokes
(<3.5% sulphur)
2. IFO180 : Intermediate fuel oil with a maximum viscosity of 180 Centistokes
(<3.5% sulphur)
3. LS380 : Low-sulphur (<1.0%) intermediate fuel oil with a maximum viscosity
of 380 Centistokes
4. LS180 : Low-sulphur (<1.0%) intermediate fuel oil with a maximum viscosity
of 180 Centistokes
5. LSMGO : Low-sulphur (<0.1%) Marine Gas Oil
6. ULSMGO: Ultra Low Sulphur (0.0015% max) Marine Gas Oil

(1 cSt (centistokes)=1 mm/s)


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FUEL OIL STANDARD 5
ISO 8217 from 2012
Code:
1. The initials ISO
2. The letter F (petroleum fuels),
3. The category of fuel, consisting of 3 letters:
1st letter: family letter: D (distillate) or R (residual)
2nd letter: M (Marine)
3rd letter: A, B, C, , relation to the particular properties
accordance with ISO 8217
4. for residual fuels, a number: 1, 2,, =maximum
kinematic viscosity, in mm2/s, at 50C.
Eg. ISO-F-RMA 10 Kerosene&Fuel Oils AE357(Group 6) 17
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Synthesis
Preheat pumped into column (just above bottom)
Crude oil evaporates vapor rises upward
= temperature decreases.
Vapor flows to top, leaves through pipe
Temperature 175-325 C, vapor condenses into liquid
kerosene
Fuel oil come out at the bottom at a higher temperature
Column contains trays for separating and collecting
liquids
Vapors enter trays through perforations (gap) under bubble
caps
Vapors bubble through liquid on tray=some condenses at
trays temperature

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TEST METHOD FOR FUEL OIL
1. Fuel density Confirm the quantity of fuel delivered

The correct grade of fuel has been delivered

Estimate the combustion performance

Measures density

Mass of fuel delivered

Hydrometer Calorific value


Anticipated combustion performance (CCAI)

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TEST METHOD FOR FUEL OIL
2. Compatibility tester
Confirm that the fuel delivery will remain stable in the
bunker tanks

Help prevent sludge deposits, failure of fuel handling


systems and costly combustion-related engine damage

Identify possible fuel stability problems before mixing


fuels

Spot tests

Heated to 100C. After 1 hour

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TEST METHOD FOR FUEL OIL
3. Water in oil test kit
all fuel oils
Determining water in
lubricating oils

Minimize instability of additive packages


and damaging microbe growth

Prevent corrosion, cavitation or failure of your machinery

Fully portable for use onboard ship and easy to use


Digital water

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APPLICATION OF FUEL OIL

Marine engine fuel

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Bibliography
http://www.nuroil.com/fuel-oil.aspx
http://transportpolicy.net/index.php?
title=International:_Fuels:_ISO_Petroleum_Marine_Fuels
http://www.chevronmarineproducts.com/products/iso-specs.aspx
https://www.astm.org/Standards/D3699.htm
http://www.cenex.com/~/media/cenex/files/fuels/data%20sheets%20and%20brochures/
k-2%20kerosene.ashx
https://weingartz.com/expert-advice/2011/03/k-1-versus-k-2-kerosine/
http://www.pearsonlongman.com/technicalenglish/pdf/level2/level2_unit8.pdf
https://lubes.exxonmobil.com/MarineLubes-En/Files/marine-fuel-stability-and-
compatibility.pdf
http://standard-club.com/media/24163/
AMastersGuidetoUsingFuelOilOnboardships.pdfhttp://powerplants.man.eu/fuels/hfo
http://www.brighthubengineering.com/marine-engines-machinery/73473-properties-of-
heavy-fuel-oil/
https://ingoeoils.co.uk/kerosene/

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THANK YOU
FOR YOU
ATTENTION

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